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D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols, Volume 1: Analytical Methods for D-Amino Acids
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Editors: Ryuichi Konno (Dokkyo University School of Medicine), Hans Brückner (Justus-Leibig-Universität Giessen) , Antimo D'Aniello (Stazione Zoologica "A. Dohrn"), George H. Fisher (Barry Univ.), Noriko Fujii (Kyoto Univ.) and Hiroshi Homma (Kitasato Univ.)
Book Description:
D-Amino acids are stereoisomers or optical isomers of naturally occurring L-amino acids. D Amino acids and L-amino acids have almost the same physical and chemical properties. D-Amino acids have been considered to be unnatural substances that are produced only when we synthesize amino acids in laboratories or factories. Indeed, equal amounts of D-amino acids and L-amino acids (racemic mixture) are produced by chemical synthesis. Until recently, living organisms were thought to contain exclusively L-amino acids. Before the emergence of life, D- and L-amino acids should have existed on the primitive earth, because amino acids are considered to be produced under the conditions of high temperature, high pressure and lightning. It is an interesting and important question why D-amino acids were eliminated and organisms have evolved using only L-amino acids. This mystery has not been solved. D-Amino acids have been considered exceptional amino acids that exist only in prokaryotes and a part of lower organisms. However, the development and improvement of analytical instruments and methods have revealed that D-amino acids are present in organisms far more in the amount and extent than previously considered. It has become clear that D-amino acids are present in invertebrates and vertebrates including humans and that some of D-amino acids have important physiological functions. Biological systems for synthesis and degradation of D-amino acids have also been found.Volume 1 is dedicated to analytical methods for D-Amino acids.

Table of Contents:
Preface

Chapter 1. Chromatographic Determination of Free D- and L-Amino Acids in Marine Algae; pp. 1-8
(Eizo Nagahisa, Takehiko Yokoyama, School of Marine Bioscience, Kitasato Univ.,Japan

Chapter 2. Determination of Acidic D-Amino Acids and their N-Methyl Derivatives in Bivalves and other Mollusks; pp. 9-16
(Ryo-hei Yamada,Yoshio Kera,Shouji Takahashi,Katsumasa Abe,Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering,Nagaoka Univ. of Technology,Japan, Takashi Watanabe, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ichinoseki National College of Technology,Japan,Kimihiko Shibata, Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemisrty, Fukushima Nat'l College of Technology,Japan)

Chapter 3. Purification and Determination of N-Methyl-d-Aspartic Acid (NMDA)in Biological Tissues; pp. 17-24
(Enza Topo, Antimo D'Aniello, Enrico D'Aniello, Zoolological Station Aaton Dohrn,Italy)

Chapter 4. A Sensitive One Step HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of N-Methyl-(D and L)-Aspartate, N-Me; pp. 25-31
(Mara Tsesarskala,Erika Galindo,George Fisher, Dept. of Chemistry,Barry Univ.,Miami Shores,Fl.,Gyula Szokan, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Eotvos Univ.,Budapest, Hungary)

Chapter 5. Methods for Total Determination of D-Aspartic Acid, D-Glutamic Acid and N-Methyl-D-Aspartic Acid and for the Specific Determination of D-Aspartic Acid; pp. 33-41
(Antimo D'Aniello,Angela DiMaio,Patrizia Spinelli,Enrico D'Aniello,Enza Topo,Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Napoli,Italy, George Fisher, Dept. of Chemistry, Barry Univ., Miami Shores,Fl.)

Chapter 6. An Improved HPLC Method for Determination and Quantification of D- and L-Aspartic Acid; pp. 43-48
(Erika Galindo,Mara Tsesarskaia, Susana Lopez, Collins Boston, George Fisher, Dept. of Chemistry, Barry Univ., Miami Shores,Fl., Antimo D'Aniello, Dept. of Neuobiology, Stazione Zoolologica A Dohrn,Naples, Italy)

Chapter 7. Determination of Free D-Aspartate and D-Serine in Rat Brain and Periphery by Gas Chromatography and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography; pp. 49-57
(Atsushi Hashimoto, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara,Japan)

Chapter 8. An LC Method for the Analysis of d-Amino Acids; pp. 59-67
(Marianne Stenberg, Dept. of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, University of Lund,Sweden)

Chapter 9. Sensitive Determination of d-Amino Acids in Rat Brain by HPLC with a Pirkle-Type Chiral Column, Following Precolumn Fluorescence Derivatization with NBD-F; pp. 69-76
(Takeshi Fukushima, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry,Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Toho Univ.,Japan,Junko Kawai,Toshimasa Toyo'oka,Division of Bio-Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Univ. of Shizuoka,Japan, Kazuhiro Imai, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Musahino Univ.,Japan)

Chapter 10. Determination of Small Amounts of D-Amino Acids in Mammals using Column-Switching HPLC; pp. 77-86
(Kenji Hamase,Kiyoshi Zaitsu, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu Univ. Japan)

Chapter 11. Sensitive Determination of Amino Acid Enantiomers by CE/LIF; pp. 87-90
(Yi-Ming Liu, Dept. of Chemistry, Jackson State Univ.,USA, Shulin Zhao, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal Univ. China)

Chapter 12. Methods of Detection for Amino Acid Enantiomers in the Vertebrate Retina; pp. 91-94
(Robert F. Miller, Dept. of Neuroscience, Michael T. Bowser, Kylie B. O'Brien, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Minnesota, Medical School of Minneapolis, USA)

Chapter 13. Determination of NG-Nitro-Arginine Enantiomers in Rat Plasma by Capillary Electrochromatography with a Chiral Mobile Phase; pp. 97-99
(Yan-fei Xin, Xiang-jun Zhou, Yong-xiang Wang, Laboratory of Molecular a, China)

Chapter 14. Determination of D-Enantiomers in Amino Acid Mixtures and Peptides Subjected to Sequencing; pp. 101-109
(Anna Maria Salzano, Giovannni ISPAAM, Nat'l Research Council, Italy

Chapter 15. Quantitative Determination of the Protein of Bacterial Origin Based on D-Amino Acid Contents; pp. 111-121
(Janos Csapo,Katalin Loki,Zsuzsanna Csapo-Kiss,Eva Varga-Visi,University of Kaposvar, Faculty of Animal Science,Hungary, Csilla Albert, Sapienta - Hungarian Univ., of Transylvania,Csikszereda Campus, Romania)

Chapter 16. Methods for Detection of d-Amino Acids using D-Amino Acid Oxidase; pp. 123-137
(Laura Caldinelli, Luciano Piubelli, Elena Rosini, Mirella S. Pilone, Loredano Pollegioni,Silvia Sacchi, Dept. of Biotech. and Molecular Sciences, Univ. of Insubria, Italy, Jean-Pierre Mothet,INSERM U862, Bordeaux Neuroscience Res. Ctr., and Univ. of Bordeaux,France)

Index

   Series:
      D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2009
   Pages: 145 pp.
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-376-9
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
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D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols, Volume 1: Analytical Methods for D-Amino Acids