Airports are components of the air transport system together with the ATC (Air Traffic Control), and airlines. Many existing airports have been confronted with increasing requirements for providing the sufficient airside and landside capacity to accommodate generally growing but increasingly volatile and uncertain air transport demand, efficiently, effectively, and safely. This demand has consisted of aircraft movements, passengers, and freight shipments. In parallel, the environmental constraints in terms of noise, air pollution, and land use (take) have strengthened. Under such circumstances, both existing and particularly new airports will have to use the advanced concepts and methods for analysis and forecasting of the airport demand, and planning and design of the airside and landside capacity. These will also include developing the short-term and the long-term solutions for matching capacity to demand in order to mitigate expected congestion and delays as well as the multidimensional examination of the infrastructural, technical, technological, operational, economic, environmental, and social airport performance. This book provides an insight into these and other challenges, with which the existing and future airports are to be increasingly faced in the 21st century.