This book reviews that the environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic impacts that represents a big challenges facing contemporary science and technology. As a result of the civilization-technogenic activities, a large amount of toxins of both organic and inorganic natures have been discharged and continue entering the environment. Many of them are extremely hazardous to people and living matter wherever the radioactive contamination represents a specific issue and requires special consideration. Specifying the primary sources of these toxins, their classifications, characterization and acute toxicity, studying their speciation and developing the remediation approaches are the most serious, economical and social problems in many countries. The solution of these problems should be, firstly, based on a wide radioecological monitoring which demands a continual routine analysis of various biological and environmental samples for their contents and occurrence forms of the traced pollutants. Secondly, the efforts must be directed to develop low coast treatment technologies can be effectively applied in treatment of hazardous materials from aqueous solutions. Hence, the hazardous wastes identification and categorization, in addition to, the applied remediation options are highlighted below.