Public utilities constitute a large section of Europe’ economy, and they have historically been at the center of national states and their industrial strategies. However, the recent creation of the single market and the liberalization of European utility sectors have resulted in an expansion of EU/EC economic regulation. This book examines the interaction among the economic and political actors and raises questions regarding the format regulation. The chapters discuss the history of utilities reform, assess the nature of the changes, and address the issues of institutional modification. Four themes emerge from the collection – the characteristics of Europe-wide reform, the nature of national variance, cross-sectional variations, and the institutional arrangements that can emerge to accommodate the regulatory regime.