Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography: from Native Kidneys to Allografts (pp. 285-300)
Authors: (Ana Flavia Moura, Josť A. Moura-Neto, and Nordeval C. Araujo)
Abstract: Imaging tests have great importance to medicine. Ultrasound is one of the most often
used tests in diagnostic investigations. In recent years, contrast agents have been used to
improve ultrasound evaluation. It has many advantages over traditional imaging tests, such
as the absence of nephrotoxicity and greater accuracy in the evaluation of microvasculature
and tissue perfusion. The major use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is in cardiac
and liver investigations. However, some trials suggest that CEUS is useful in the evaluation
of other organs, including renal transplant recipients. Because of its safety and sensitivity,
CEUS is becoming a good complementary option to other imaging tests, and, in some
cases, it could replace them as a best alternative, especially in patients with kidney failure.
As a recent technique, CEUS still faces some difficulties. Regulatory issues with the US
Food and Drug administration (FDA), incompatibility of ultrasound devices in many
radiology centers, and unfamiliarity of some radiologists about CEUS are the main barriers.
Despite these, CEUS is expected to be increasingly used and become one of the major
imaging tests in the future.
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