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Tritium: Advances in Research and Applications
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Editors: Marija M. Jankovic Ph.D. (Radiation and Environmental Protection Department, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinča, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
Book Description:
Tritium, 3H (T), is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Naturally occurring tritium is rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. Once formed in the stratosphere, the tritium atoms have a large amount of kinetic energy. At a pressure lower than atmospheric, they react with the oxygen, creating a stable radical HO2. This radical reacts with ozone, following the photochemical reaction of decomposition TO2 to HTO. Once tritium is incorporated into the water molecule, then it falls to the Earth’s surface as precipitation or snow, thus entering into the natural hydrological cycle.

With a half-life of 12.32 years and a maximum energy of 18 keV beta radiation, this radioisotope is not dangerous externally, but it can be a radiation hazard when inhaled, ingested via food or water, or absorbed through the skin. The biological half-life ranges from around 7 to 14 days, so bioaccumulation of tritium is not a significant concern.
Tritium is a very useful hydro-geological tracer and can be successfully applied in assessing the age of groundwater and residence times of continental hydrologic systems or as an oceanic transient tracer. Tritium releases from nuclear installations may be useful for some applications as a powerful local tracer, but on the other hand such releases may affect the reliability and accuracy of tritium use as a global tracer. For this reason, measuring of the activity concentrations of tritium is regularly a part of every national and/or international monitoring programme. Tritium is also used in radio luminescent light sources for watches and various instruments, and, along with deuterium, as a fuel for nuclear fusion reactors with applications in energy generation and weapons.

The amount of tritium that appears in the atmosphere as a product of human activity comes from: nuclear reactors, production of nuclear weapons, atmospheric and above ground nuclear explosions, heavy water and tritium plants, and plants for tritium separation. The use of tritium labeled compounds for medical and research purposes is also a possible source of contamination by tritium.

Knowledge of the tritium concentration distribution in the environment, awareness of various anthropogenic sources of tritium, and optimization of measurement conditions are of great importance in various applications and in preserving human health. (Nova)

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Table of Contents:
Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Tritium Measurement with a Plastic Scintillator: An Organic Wasteless Method (pp. 1-32)
(Etsuko Furuta)

Chapter 2. Tritium in Snowpacks of Eastern Siberia (pp. 33-46)
(V. N. Makarov)

Chapter 3. Tritium in the Freshwater Ecosystem of the Yenisei River: Behaviour, Accumulation, and Transformation (pp. 47-98)
(Lydia Bondareva)

Chapter 4. Methodology of Tritium Determination in Aqueous Samples by Liquid Scintillation Counting Techniques (pp. 99-156)
(Ivana Stojković, Nataša Todorović, Jovana Nikolov, Ines Krajcar Bronić, Jadranka Barešić and Uranija Kozmidis Luburić)

Chapter 5. Tritium in Water: Hydrology and Health Implications (pp. 157-212)
(Jovana Nikolov, Ines Krajcar Bronić, Nataša Todorović, Ivana Stojković, Jadranka Barešić and Tanja Petrović-Pantić)

Chapter 6. A New Method for the Determination of Tritium Originating in Surface Waters: Symmetrical Index Application (pp. 213-250)
(Marija M.Janković Bojan Ž. Janković, Nataša B. Sarap)

Chapter 7. Tritium Emissions from Nuclear Installations (pp. 251-268)
(Marko Štrok)

About the Editor (pp. 269-270)

Index (pp. 271)

Total Pages: 279

   Series:
      Chemistry Research and Applications
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2018 - May
   ISBN: 978-1-53613-506-0
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Tritium: Advances in Research and Applications