Switches, Isolators, Circulators and Multifunctional Components for Optical and THZ Regions Based on 2D Photonic Crystals with Magneto-Optical Resonators (pp. 95-214)
Authors: (Victor Dmitriev and Gianni Portela, Federal University of Para, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Belem, Para, Brazil)
Abstract: One of the ways to create highly integrated optical systems are the use
of photonic crystal chips. Various active and passive components based
on photonic crystals were suggested during last years. Among the passive
components are different types of switches, isolators, three- and four-port
circulators, two- and three-way dividers, and others.
Recently, several multifunctional components were suggested by us.
These devices allow one further integration of photonic crystal chips. In
one of them, the signal in the input port is divided equally in two output
ports and the waves reflected from these ports are collected in the fourth
port. Thus, this component can be called nonreciprocal divider. Another
multifunctional component fulfils the following functions: switching of
the signal, division of the signal, bending of the waveguides and isolation.
This component substituting three common elements, allows one to
increase density of the chips and, as a consequence, to reduce the dimensions
of optical subsystems.
This chapter is based on our research results published in literature,
1) symmetry analysis of the scattering matrices of the 2-, 3-, 4-
and 6- ports using the magnetic group theory;
2) 2-ports as switches and isolators, discussion of different mechanisms
of their functioning;
3) 3-port circulators with low symmetry;
4) nonreciprocal dividers;
5) multifunctional components;
6) discussion of some problems in design of nonreciprocal components
in optical region.