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Photonic Crystal Fibers: Design Characteristics and Optical Properties (pp. 1-56) $100.00
Authors:  (Sharafat Ali and Nasim Ahmed, School of Computer And Communication Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis Pauh Putra, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia)
Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) also known as holey fibers are usually glass
fibers having minuscule array of air hole channels running alone its entire
length which introduces the low index cladding covering the undoped fused
silica core. PCF is a new class of optical fiber based on the properties of
photonic crystals. The optical fiber is nowadays an important component of
the information superhighway. Probably the most remarkable technological
breakthrough in the recent history of telecom is the invention of optical
fibers. It has steadily replaced copper wire and satellite links in telecom
systems because of many of its attractive features. Unlike the traditional
fiber, both the core and cladding are made from the same material in PCF and
light waves can be well confined and guided properly through the fiber by the
guiding mechanism of total internal reflection (TIR) or photonic band gap
(PBG). In this chapter we have discussed the difference between TIR and
PGB photonic crystal fiber with an elaborate discussion on guiding
mechanism and design methodology of TIR fibers. Photonic crystal fibers
can be designed according to the applications by tuning its physical
parameters such as air hole structure, size and arrangements. Because of its
ability to tune optical properties which is not possible in conventional optical
fiber (COF), PCF is now finding applications in areas of fiber-optic
communications, high-power transmission, fiber lasers, highly sensitive gas
sensors, nonlinear devices and other areas. Design methodology of
microstructured photonic crystal fiber using simulation software has been
described with examples. Several proposed photonic crystal fibers have been
reported in this chapter to understand the various effects of changing the
designing parameters on their optical properties. Effective refractive index,
birefringence, dispersion, confinement loss, bending loss, effective area and
non-linearity of a photonic crystal fiber have been illustrated. Creating
birefringence in a PCF for optical sensing application by breaking the fiber
asymmetry and the impact of air hole size and position have been discussed
here. Dispersion characteristics in photonic crystal fibers such as near zero
flat dispersion and properties of a dispersion compensating fiber has been
reported with several examples. Furthermore an introduction to a newly
developed technology porous core photonic crystal fibers has been discussed
in this chapter. 

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Photonic Crystal Fibers: Design Characteristics and Optical Properties (pp. 1-56)