A photobioreactor (PBR) is a bioreactor utilizing a light source to cultivate phototrophic microorganisms that produce biomass by using light and CO2; these phototrophic microorganisms include plants, micro- and macroalgae, mosses, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. Micro- and macroalgae are grown naturally in sea water (an economical approach) or brackish water and in fresh water. Global production of marine algal monocultures is primarily restricted to a limited number of species, including rapidly growing plants. This book examines the advancements, applications and current research on photobioreactors. The target audience for this book are environmental scientists, environmental engineers, chemical and biochemical engineers, university students, and researchers. (Nova).