Is Winning the Only Thing? Development of the Conduct in Sport toward Opponents Scale (CSOS) (pp. 19-32)
Authors: Mariya A. Yukhymenko
Abstract: Athletes face high expectations from their coaches, administrators, and teammates to successfully perform at an exemplary level while demonstrating ethical conduct. The pressures to win, however, may force some athletes to employ dubious methods of winning. The purpose of this study was to create a measure of conduct toward opponents that captures the practices athletes employ to win athletic competitions. A series of steps was initiated to develop the measure: (a) reviewing the literature; (b) creating items and enlisting an expert panel to establish content validity; and (c) conducting a pilot study. Following the literature review, items were created and evaluated by the expert panel. These steps resulted in an 18-item instrument, the Conduct in Sport toward Opponent Scale (CSOS), which was designed to measure self-reported incidences of sportsmanship, gamesmanship, and instrumental aggression. Results provided evidence of initial validity and reliability, suggesting that the CSOS can be used in future studies. Future studies, however, should further examine the validity of the CSOS.