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Cyclodextrins in Nitrosation Chemistry, pp. 1-44 $25.00
Authors:  Emilia Iglesias-Martínez
Abstract:
Nitroso compounds occupy a prominent position in organic chemistry as both useful synthetic intermediates and molecules of biological interest. The chemistry of organic nitroso compounds is in many ways linked to the chemistry of nitric oxide (NO). Many aspects of nitroso compounds have been investigated from several viewpoints. In one hand, some of these substances in particular, N-nitrosamines have proved to the powerful carcinogens in all animal species that have been tested. [5] The toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects of some nitroso compounds are now well documented.
From a second viewpoint, since the demonstration in 1987 of the enzymatic formation of NO from L-arginine and the necessary role of NO in the vascular muscle relaxation, [6] an explosion of activity on the chemistry of NO including all NO-precursors has been developed.
A third important aspect of nitrosation reactions concerns the complete knowledge of the factors that affect the NO-transfer processes. Therefore, the kinetic study of nitrosation
reactions has been widely studied in detail under the most variety of experimental conditions and has proved to be a fruitful one from the mechanistic point of view. A large number of features have stood out, including acid and base catalysis, nucleophilic catalysis, rate limiting proton transfer, diffusion controlled reactions, intramolecular rearrangements, transnitrosation reactions, etc., all of which have been established in nitrosation reactions, which
have been largely studied under various experimental conditions, including aqueous medium, organic solvents, mixtures of water and organic solvents, and, in the last few years, also in microheterogeneous media such as aqueous solutions of surfactants forming micelles, of cyclodextrins, or microemulsions.
The aim of this chapter is to describe the practical aspects, and current and potential applications of cyclodextrins in mechanistic studies that involve nitrosation reactions particularly. The first section describes physico-chemical aspects of aqueous cyclodextrin
solutions relative to mechanistic studies. The next section characterizes the types of information in different nitrosation reaction patterns that are usually obtain in acid and basic media, by paying special attention to the nitrosatable substrate and nitrosating agent. The last section focuses on the effect of cyclodextrins on reactions undergone by some nitroso compounds and on some nitrosation reactions that produce nitroso compounds. 


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Cyclodextrins in Nitrosation Chemistry, pp. 1-44