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Plasma and High Frequency Processes for Obtaining and Processing Materials in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. 2nd Edition.
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Authors: I.N. Toumanov 
Book Description:
Questions regarding the advancement of the technology for production and regeneration of nuclear fuel and to the further perfection of the nuclear fuel cycle are very significant when determining the ultimate costs of electrical energy produced at nuclear power stations as well as for safety. The 2nd edition, supplemented and augmented, of this ground-breaking book analyzes the role of plasma and high frequency processes.

Table of Contents:
FOREWARD

1. NEW TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE
1.1.Introduction: influence of nuclear power discovery on development of native abilities of human be-ings.
1.2. Interconnection between various fields of technique.
1.3. Standards of safety.
1.4. New technologies developed as a result of nuclear power discovery.
.4.1. Research of impact on environment.
.4.2. Protection of environment.
.4.3. Handling by tools.
.4.4. Supersonic tests.
.4.5. Liga-technology.
.4.6. Applications in medicine.
.4.7. Superconducting materials.
.4.8. High temperature metallic and ceramic materials.
.4.9. Other non-nuclear applications of nuclear technique and technology.
.4.10. New applications of the nuclear technique in the controlled thermonuclear fusion.
4.11. Development of the technology for production and regeneration of nuclear fuel.
1.5. World Power Engineering Structure.
1.6. Function of nuclear power engineering in the world power provision.
1.7. Structure and cost of the nuclear fuel cycle.
1.8. Integration of the Russia's Nuclear Power Engineering into the World Power Engineering in the early 21st Century.
1.9. Perspective trends in development of the nuclear fuel cycle based on the use of electrotechnology and the new methods of purification of the nuclear materials.
.9.1. Sorption, extraction and distillation purification in the production technology of the nuclear and construction materials.
.9.2. Applications of technological plasmas in chemical and metallurgical processes.

2. GENERAL ANALYSIS OF PLASMA TECHNIQUE FOR APPLICATIONS IN CHEMI-CAL TECHNOLOGY AND METALLURGY.
2.1. Brief casually – historic study of plasmatron technique development.
2.2. Power supply of DC arc plasmatrons.
2.3. Power supply of AC arc plasmatrons.
2.4. DC arc plasmatrons for chemical and metallurgical applications.
.4.1. Plasmatrons with self-aligning arc length.
.4.2. Plasmatrons with fixed average length of arc.
2.5. Generalized equations for calculation of arc plasmatrons parameters.
.5.1. Current-voltage characteristics of arc.
.5.2. Plasmatron heat efficiency - .
.5.3. Current-voltage characteristics of arc in air for a single-chamber plasmatron.
.5.4. Current-voltage characteristics of arc in air for two-chamber plasmatron.
.5.5. Current-voltage characteristics of arc for one-chamber plasmatron.
.5.6. Data on heat efficiency of arc plasmatrons.
2.6. Powerful DC arc industrial plasmatrons with hollow tubular electrodes.
.6.1. The Hűls torch.
.6.2. The Union Carbide torch.
.6.3. The Union Carbide torch with transferred arc.
.6.4. The Westinghouse torch.
.6.5. The Tioxide torch.
.6.6. The Plasma Energy Corporation torch.
.6.7. The Aerospatiale torch.
.6.8. The SKF torch.
2.7. Powerful industrial arc plasmatrons with rod cathode and coaxial anode.
.7.1. The Daido torch.
.7.2. The Voest alpine torch.
.7.3. The Tetronics torch.
.7.4. The Krupp torch.
.7.5. The Ionarc torch.
2.8. Power supplies of DC arc plasmatrons.
2.9. Problems of wear of arc plasmatrons electrodes.
.9.1. Wear of cathodes of the plasmatrons with rod frontal cathode and copper cylindrical anode.
.9.2. Evaporation and chemical carrying away of cathode materials.
.9.3. Internal processes in the cathode body.
.9.4. Erosion of copper cylindrical cathode of DC arc plasmatron.
.9.5. Wear of anodes of arc plasmatrons.
.9.6. Thermochemical cathodes.
2.10. Practical results on operating life of the DC arc plasmatrons.
.10.1. Operation time of tungsten cathode and copper anode in air plasmas.
.10.2. Chemical purity of the materials obtained at the pilot plasma plants.
.10.3. Arc plasmatrons supplied with cathodes replaced without stopping of technological process.
.10.4. Splitting of arc column to several conducting channels with independent near-electrode atach-ments.
.10.5. Regenerated cathodes of some arc plasmatrons.
.10.6. Material technology approaches for increasing operation time of arc plasmatron anodes.
2.11. Operation time of the DC arc plasmatrons with hollow tubular electrodes.
.11.1. Erosion of the cold copper tubular electrodes depending on discharge current.
.11.2. Specific erosion of electrodes as a function of moving of the arc radial portion and its axial scanning.
.11.3. Specific erosion of electrodes as a function of axial magnetic induction.
.11.4. Specific erosion of electrodes as a function of aeromagnetic axial scanning of the arc radial por-tion.
.11.5. Integral characteristics of specific erosion of rear copper tubular electrode.
.11.6. About some research and development for decrease of specific erosion of the tubular elec-trodes.
2.12. Frequency plasmatrons: classification and general data.
2.13. Optical discharges.
2.14. Super high frequency (microwave) discharges.
.14.1. Configuration of microwave plasma reactors for chemical and metallurgical applications.
.14.2. All-metal microwave plasmatrons.
.14.3. Other approaches to development of all-metal microwave plasmatron. .
.14.4. Some features of a system “microwave generator – microwave plasmatron”.
.14.5. Advancement of once more construction of all-metal microwave plasmotron for applications; some results of testing.
2.15. Ultra short-wave (USW) discharges.
2.16. High frequency capacitive discharges and plasmatrons.
2.17. High frequency inductive plasmatrons.
.17.1. High frequency inductive plasmatrons made of dielectric materials.
.17.2. Combined metal-dielectric plasmatrons.
.17.3. Some parameters of oscillation circuit of the high frequency generators having principal sig-nificance for applications.
2.18. General analysis of plasma technique status for industrial applications in chemical technology, metallurgy and for treatment of materials.

3. PLASMA TECHNIQUE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE PROCESSES OF OPENING-UP OF ORES AND ORE CONCENTRATES.
3.1. Introduction.
3.2. Plasma technology for processing of the zirconium-containing concentrates.
3.3. Plasma-fluorine technology for processing of the zirconium-containing concentrates.
.3.1. Sublimation refining of zirconium.
.3.2. Condensation refining of silicon.
.3.3. Problems of tails in the plasma-fluorine technology for processing zircon.
3.4. Use of plasma processing for recovery of nickel and other metals from serpentine.
3.5. Plasma process for production of disperse tungsten and molybdenum from ammonium salts of tungsten and molybdenum acids respectively.
3.6. Other plasma processes for opening-up of ore raw material for production of disperse and com-pacted materials.
.6.1. Producing of manganese oxide from rhodonite.
.6.2. Plasma opening-up of ilmenite concentrate.
.6.3. Producing metals at plasma decomposition of sulphide raw material.
3.7. General analysis of a technique level and technology for plasma opening-up ore concentrates.
.7.1. Powerful DC arc plasmatron EDN – VC (ЭДН-ВС) with graphite electrodes.
.7.2. The DC arc plasmatrons developed at the Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS with rod tungsten cathode and tubular copper anode having power of 1 – 2 MW.
.7.3. Powerful DC arc plasmatrons with cylindrical hollow electrodes.
3.8. Feasible applications of plasma technique and technology for opening-up of thorium ores.
3.9. Non – trivial applications of high temperature treatment of ores and ore concentrates.

4. PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NATURAL AND REGENER-ATED URANIUM FROM SOLUTIONS (RE-EXTRACTS) AND MELTS OF HYDRATED SALTS.
4.1. Principles of the process.
4.2. Flow sheet of the plasma process for decomposition of uranium nitric solutions to uranium oxides and nitric acid.
4.3. Mathematic model of the decomposition process of disintegrated uranium nitrate solution in air plasma heat carrier.
.3.1. Condensed phase motion equation.
.3.2. Equation describing droplet heating and evaporation of the solvent.
.3.3. Equation describing temperature increase of the salt residue in the process of thermal decompo-sition.
.3.4. Mass balance equation for two-phase flow.
.3.5. Conservation equation for impulse and energy for two-phase flow.
4.4. Calculation results of the process; comparison of the calculated and experimental data.
4.5. Some problems of heat and mass exchange and of the reaction kinetics at interaction of chemi-cally-active systems with plasma flows.
4.6. Decomposition of the polydisperse disintegrated nitric solutions of metals at mixing with plasma streams.
4.7. Development of the plasma process for producing oxides of regenerated uranium.
4.8. Plasma process for decomposition of uranium nitrate solutions to uranium oxides and nitric acid solution.
.8.1. Plasma reactor.
.8.2. Transport and disintegration of the solution.
.8.3. Gas supply system.
.8.4. Technique used for unloading the plasma reactor, catching disperse phase and cleaning gas ex-haust of uranium oxides dust.
.8.5. Other elements of the pilot plant.
4 .9. Description of the plasma apparatus for conversion of various solutions; results of the experi-ments and the tests.
4.10. Obtaining oxides of regenerated uranium for production of uranium hexafluorides: development and projection of the large scale plasma equipment for producing regenerated uranium oxides from the uranium nitrate re-extracts.
4.11. Technical and economical comparison of the plasma and hydrochemical processes of producing uranium oxides.
4.12. Production of uranium oxides designed for making fuel elements core by plasma decomposition of the nitric re-extracts of regenerated uranium.
4.13. Behavior of admixtures to the uranium nitrate hexahydrate produced from re-extracts of regener-ated uranium in the process of plasma denitration.
.13.1. Some remarks concerning the production technology of ceramic disperse oxides by plasma de-nitration of the melts of uranium nitrate hexahydrate of regenerated uranium.
.13.2. General characteristics of the raw material.
.13.3. A priori analysis of distribution of the admixtures co-moving uranium in the melt of uranium nitrate hexahydrate in the plasma decomposition process.
.13.4. Experimental study of the uranium fission products behavior at the plasma denitration of the uranium re-extracts.
4.14. Non-uranium large-scale applications of the plasma technology for producing oxide materials: development of the plasma process for producing magnesium oxide for deposition of protective coat-ings onto electrotechnical steel.

5. PLASMA AND FREQUENCY DENITRATION PROCESSES OF MIXED NITRIC SOLU-TIONS AND PRODUCTION OF OXIDE COMPOUNDS.
5.1. Introduction.
5.2. About a feasibility of producing fuel oxide compounds by plasma decomposition of mixed nitric solutions.
5.3. Obtaining uranium-chromium oxide compounds.
5.4. Microwave technology for production of (U-Pu)-, (U-Th)- and other oxide compounds.
5.5. Microwave plasma technology for production of mixed oxide (U-Th)- and (U-Pu)-fuel.
5.6. Non-nuclear applications of the plasma decomposition process of mixed nitric solutions for pro-ducing oxide compounds: producing oxide compounds possessing high temperature superconductivity.
5.7. Morphology of the particles obtained by plasma denitration of nitric raw material.
. 7.1. Influence of temperature solubility coefficient of a salt on morphology of a particle.
. 7.2. Influence of flow hydrodynamics on morphology of a particle.
. 7.3. Influence of chemical nature of a raw material and products on morphology of a particle.
5.8. Kinetics of chemical reactions under plasma conditions.
5.9. Conclusion.

6. PLASMA CARBOTHERMAL PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR REDUCTION OF URANIUM FROM OXIDE RAW MATERIAL.
6.1. Function of metallic uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle.
6.2. Thermodynamics of the carbothermal reduction of uranium from oxide raw material.
6.3. Technical level attained in the technology of uranium carbothermal reduction from oxide raw ma-terial.
.3.1. High frequency induction reduction of uranium from uranium oxides.
.3.2. Reduction of uranium from oxide raw material in the high intensity arc.
6.4. Plasma shaft reduction of uranium from oxide raw material.
.4.1. Results of the large-scale experiments on plasma carbothermal reduction of uranium from oxide raw material.
.4.2. Selection of a heat carrier for the plasma carbothermal reduction of uranium from oxide raw material.
6.5. Plasma electronic refining of the uranium produced by carbothermal reduction.
.5.1 Plasma – electronic metallurgical plasmatrons.
.5.2. Plasma – electronic equipment for refining of uranium and rare metals.
6.6. Modern level of the plasma technique and technology designed for industrial implementation of the plasma carbothermic reduction process of uranium from oxide raw material.
6.7. Advancement level of electrometallurgy based on application of the “cold crucible” technology.
6.8. Flow sheet of the modernized plasma carbothermic reduction process as applied to natural and re-generated uranium.

7. HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING OF CARBIDE AND BORIDE MATERIALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER ENGINEERING.
7.1. Introduction.
7.2. Application of oxygen-free ceramic materials in nuclear power engineering.
7.3. High frequency gas-phase processes for producing oxygen-free ceramic materials.
.3.1. Obtaining of boron carbide
.3.2. Obtaining of silicon carbide.
7.4. Scientific and technical concepts of the condensed phase synthesis of carbide materials in high frequency electromagnetic fields.
7.5. The principal mathematical correlations describing the high frequency induction synthesis.
7.6. Interaction of high frequency electromagnetic field with chemically-active loading variable on its electrophysical properties.
7.7. Development of apparatus concepts for a synthesis process of carbides and related compounds in the high frequency electromagnetic fields.
.7.1. High frequency induction apparatus “Pluton-2” .
.7.2. Development and building of the high frequency power supply for the apparatus “Pluton-2” op-erating on chemically-active loading with variable heat- and electrophysical properties.
.7.3. Development and tests of the metal-dielectric reactor designed for obtaining of boron carbide and related compounds in the high frequency induction apparatuses “Pluton”.
7.8. High frequency induction apparatus “Pluton-3”.
7.9. Calculation of the metal-dielectric reactor.
.9.1. Computation of geometric sizes of the reactor.
.9.2. Determination of a number of the reactor cells and width of intersectional clearances.
.9.3. Heat computation of the metal-dielectric reactor.
.9.4. Electrical calculation of the high frequency induction heater.
.9.5. Calculation of cooling the reactor.
7.10. Optimization of continuous operating mode of the process for producing boron carbide in the ap-paratus “Pluton-3”.
7.11. Optimization of the control parameters for automation of the apparatuses “Pluton”; development of the automatic line for production of boron carbide.
.11.1. Determination of thermo- and electrophysical parameters of the loading; study of transient proc-esses at heating of a charge.
.11.2. Determination of the control parameters for optimization and automation of the process.
.11.3. Automatically controlled line for production of refractory materials.
.11.4. Results of designing and testing of the metal-dielectric reactors.
.11.5. Results of the tests of the technological line for production of boron carbide.
.11.6. Results of the tests of boron carbide produced by direct induction heating of the charge of 2B2O3 + 7C.
7.12. Frequency processes in technology of producing carbides, borides and other refractories.
.12.1. Synthesis of carbides of silicon, titanium and other chemical elements.
.12.2. Synthesis of borides in high frequency electromagnetic field.
7.13. Conclusion.

8. HIGH FREQUENCY AND PLASMA PROCESSES IN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY OF FLUORINE FROM FLUORINE-CONTAINING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC MINERALS AS APPLIED TO TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDES.
8.1. High frequency process for recovery of fluorine from fluorite in the form of hydrogen fluoride.
8.2. Plasma-arc carbothermal processes for recovery of fluorine from fluorite in the form of carbon fluorides.
8.3. The process for conversion of fluorite to calcium carbide and carbon fluorides at low frequency di-rect inductive heating of the charge CaF2 + 5/2 C.
8.4. The process for conversion of fluorite to calcium carbide and carbon fluorides at high frequency direct inductive heating of the charge CaF2 + 5/2 C.
8.5. The plasma-arc process for conversion of fluorite to calcium carbide and carbon fluorides at hea-ting of the charge CaF2 + 5/2 C.
8.6. The combined process for plasma-frequency conversion of fluorite to calcium carbide and carbon fluorides at electrothermal treatment of the charge CaF2 + 5/2 C.
8.7. Plasma technology for recovery of fluorine from exhausts of the hydrogen fluoride plants.
8.8. Plasma-sorption technology for recovery of pure silicon for microelectronic applications and hy-drogen fluoride from synthetic fluorine-containing minerals.
.8.1. Technological and apparatus flow sheet for plasma-sorption conversion of sodium fluorosilicate to silicon and hydrogen fluoride.
.8.2. Apparatus flow sheet for obtaining of granular polycrystalline silicon.
.8.3. Consumption of raw material, reactants and power for provision of the plant having capacity of 1000 t. Si/a.
8.9. High temperature equipment for producing uranium hexafluoride by fluorination of fluoride and oxide raw material.
.9.1. Parameters defining heat stability of the flame reactor.
.9.2. Fluorination regime of uranium raw material as a function of diameter of the flame reactor.
.9.3. Operation regime of the flame reactor as a function of flame temperature.
.9.4. Heat characteristics of the flame reactor as a function of its diameter.
.9.5. Fluorination operating mode of the flame reactor as a function of its wall temperature.
.9.6 Influence of particle sizes of uranium raw material on heat characteristics of the flame reactor.
.9.7. Practical results of projection and exploitation of various flame reactors as applied to fluorination of UF4 and U3O8.
.9.8. General flow sheet of the technological line for producing UF6 in the flame reactor.

9. PLASMA AND LASER PROCESSES IN TECHNOLOGY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT.
9.1. Introduction.
9.2. General characteristics of the industrial separation technology of uranium isotopes; ratio of centri-fuge and laser technologies.
9.3. Plasma technologies proposed for separation of uranium isotopes.
9.4. Separation of uranium isotopes by method of laser photoexcitation.
9.5. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS).
9.6 Commercial realization of the AVLIS process.
9.7. Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS).
9.8. Construction of a separation cascade.
9.9. Method of JANAI-LIS for separation of uranium isotopes.
9.10. New applications of the MLIS – technology for purification of actinide elements.

10. TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF URANIUM-FLUORINE PLASMA.
10.1. General characteristics of uranium-fluorine plasmas.
10.2. Physical and chemical processes in uranium hexafluorides at high temperatures.
.2.1. Thermodynamics of (U-F)-plasmas.
.2.2. Electrical conductivity of (U-F)-plasmas.
.2.3. Kinetics of formation of (U-F)-plasmas.
10.3. Practical results on generation of stable flows of (U-F)-plasmas.
.3.1 DC-glow discharge in UF6.
.3.2. Reactantless reduction of uranium from UF6 in high frequency inductive discharge.
.3.3. Diagnostics of the (U-F)-plasma flows.
.3.4. Quenching (U-F)-plasma flows.
.3.5. Microwave discharge in UF6.
10.4. Parameters of the radio frequency (U-F)-plasmas flows as an objects of chemical and metallurgi-cal applications.
.4.1. Calculation parameters of the high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas.
.4.2. The calculation of power of the high frequency power supply for generation of the flow of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas.
10.5. Analysis of the high frequency power supply units for generation of (U-F)-plasma flows.
10.6. Analysis of influence of the metal-dielectric plasmatron parameters on coupling of the high fre-quency generator with a flow of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas.
10.7. Separation of the components of uranium – fluorine plasma.
.7.1. Transportation of uranium hexafluoride into the metal-dielectric plasmatron – reactor.
.7.2. Uranium – fluorine plasma generator.
.7.3. Magnetic separator.
.7.4. Pumping out fluorine from the magnetic separator volume.
.7.5. Metallurgical equipment.
10.8. Some practical results on implementation of the plasma-electromagnetic technology for isolation of uranium and fluorine from the (U – F) – plasma flows.
.8.1. Electrical conductivity of the (U – F) – plasma column.
.8.2. Estimation of power induced in the (U – F) –plasma flow in the magnetic separator.
.8.3. Interaction of the magnetic separator power source with the loading.
.8.4. Operating frequencies of the magnetic separator power supply.
10.9. General technological flow sheet of the pilot plant operating on the plasma-electromagnetic tech-nology as applied to conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to metallic uranium and fluorine.
10.10. Perspective flow sheets for generation of the technological uranium-fluorine plasmas.
.10.1. The generator of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas supplied with re - distribution of os-cillation power to two channels: the inductive channel and the coupling channel via high frequency torch electrode.
.10.2. The generator of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas supplied with auxiliary DC plasma-tron operating on UF6.
.10.3. The generator of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas supplied with auxiliary microwave plasmatron operating on UF6.
.10.4. The generator of high frequency inductive (U-F)-plasmas reinforced by a laser.
10.11. Chemical and metallurgical applications of generator of uranium-fluorine technological plas-mas.

11. PLASMA PROCESSES FOR CONVERSION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE DE-PLETED ON U-235.
11.1. Characteristics of the problem; the known approaches to its solution.
11.2. The main concepts of the plasma technology for conversion of UF6 depleted on U-235 to ura-nium oxides and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride.
.2.1. The thermodynamics of (U-F-O-H)-plasmas.
.2.2. The kinetics of conversion of UF6 in (Н-ОН)-plasma and formation of (U-F-O-H)-plasmas.
11.3. Experimental study of conversion of UF6 depleted on U-235.
.3.1. Technical characteristics of the UF6 evaporator.
.3.2. The compressor.
.3.3. The unit for preparation of steam flow.
.3.4. The steam plasmatron EDP – 145 (ЭДП-145).
.3.5. The metal-cloth filter.
.3.6. The uranium oxides collector.
.3.7. The technical characteristics of the plasma plant as a whole.
11.4. Experimental study of the plasma conversion process of UF6 depleted on U-235: results of commissioning the plant.
11.5. Plasma-rectification technology for conversion of UF6 depleted on U-235.
11.6. The operation principles of steam plasmatron.
.6.1. Generation of the stable overheated steam flow for steam vortex plasmatron.
.6.2. The concept of a steam auto-plasmatron.
.6.3. Erosion of electrodes of a steam plasmatron.
11.7. Plasma-hydrogen technology for processing of UF6 depleted on U-235 to metallic uranium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride.
.7.1. General flow sheet of the plasma-hydrogen technology for conversion of uranium hexa-fluoride to metallic uranium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride.
.7.2. Kinetics of plasma-hydrogen reduction of uranium from UF6 to uranium tetrafluoride.
.7.3. Condensation of uranium tetrafluoride, forming its granulometric composition.
.7.4. Study of plasma-hydrogen reduction of uranium from UF6 to uranium tetrafluoride.
.7.5. Hydrogen reduction of uranium from UF4 at high temperatures.
.7.6. Scientific and technical level of plasma and high frequency inductive technique for application of plasma-hydrogen technology for conversion of UF6 depleted on U-235 to metallic uranium and an-hydrous hydrogen fluoride according to the patent /20/.

12. PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF OXIDE NUCLEAR FUEL FROM LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FOR LIGHT WATER NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS.
12.1 Technologies for Production of Oxide Nuclear Fuel.
12.2. The criterions for evaluation of quality of disperse ceramic uranium dioxide.
.2.1. Chemical composition of disperse UO2.
.2.2. Physical and chemical properties of the powders of UO2.
.2.3. Technological properties of the UO2 - powders.
.2.4. Influence of production technology of uranium dioxide on its properties, technical and eco-nomical parameters of the process.
12.3. Plasma conversion process of UF6 low enriched on U-235 (to 5 %) to uranium oxides and hydro-fluoric acid solution.
12.4. Conversion kinetics of UF6 in (Н-ОН)-plasma and formation of (U-F-N-O-H)-plasma.

13. NEW TECHNIQUE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEPARATION OF GAS AND DIS-PERSE PRODUCTS OF PLASMA CHEMICAL PROCESSES.
13.1. Characteristics of the separation problem of the components of two-phase technological streams.
13.2. General technological approach to solution of the separation problem of gas and disperse prod-ucts of plasma technological processes.
13.3. Separation of gas and disperse products leaving plasma reactors with the use of vortex dust catchers.
.3.1. The vortex dust catcher for separation of disperse and gas products produced in the plasma deni-trator having nuclear–safe geometry.
. 3.2. Tests of the dust catcher for collection of oxide disperse products at operation of the pilot plasma apparatus.
13.4. Separation of gas and disperse products of the plasma processes at filtration of two-phase streams through cermet filters; some general information on manufacturing and operation of cermet filters.
13.5. The separation mechanism of disperse and gas products of plasma technological processes.
.5.1. Diffusion mechanism of aerosols capture.
.5.2. Contact deposition.
.5.3. Inertial deposition.
.5.4. Gravitational deposition.
.5.5. Electrostatic deposition of dust.
13.6. Development of the two-layer filter elements.
.6.1. Manufacturing technology of the two-layer filter element matrix.
.6.2. Method of molding fine-grained layer into the matrix of the two-layer filter element.
.6.3. Welding of the filter elements.
13.7 Regeneration technology of the metal-ceramic filters.
13.8. Experimental foundation of optimal sizes of the ejection impulse regeneration unit of the two-layer cermet filter.
13.9. Computation method of the two-layer cermet filter.
.9.1. Determination of optimal sizes of the ejector and its hydraulic characteristics.
.9.2. Determination of the receiver volume and temporal interval between the regeneration impulses.
13.10. Resource tests of the two-layer filter elements.
13.11. Technique level of separation of fine-disperse and gas products on the basis of multilayer cer-met and ceramic filter developed at the RRC “Kurchatov Institute”.
13.12. The perspective flow sheet for separation of disperse and gas products of the plasma techno-logical processes.

14. FREQUENCY TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF NUCLEAR-GRADE ZIRCO-NIUM, HAFNIUM AND OTHER RARE METALS.
14.1. Introduction.
14.2. The function of zirconium in the nuclear power engineering.
14.3. Some remarks concerning the production technology of zirconium for the nuclear power engi-neering.
14.4. Frequency inductive melter for direct heating – “cold crucible” – for reduction and melting met-als.
.4.1. The operation concepts of chemical and metallurgical equipment supplied with “cold crucible”.
.4.2. Electrical parameters of induction melting in the “cold crucible”.
.4.3. Number of the “cold crucible” cells and width of the intersectional clearances.
14.5. Processes and equipment for reduction of zirconium, rare and rare-earth metals with the use of the “cold crucible” technology.
14.6. Use of direct inductive heating for refining metals and alloys.
14.7. Constructions and manufacturing of metallurgical “cold crucibles”.
14.8. Induction melting in “cold crucible” with electromagnetic squeezing of metal.
14.9. The combined plasma-frequency equipment for producing metals and alloys.
.9.1. Remelting scrap.
.9.2. Degasification of the melt bath.
.9.3. Evaporation of admixtures from the melt bath.
.9.4. Desulfurization.
.9.5. Dephosphorization.

15. USE OF MICROWAVE, HIGH FREQUENCY AND PLASMA TECHNIQUE AND TECH-NOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE.
15.1. General situation with accumulation and reprocessing of radioactive waste (RW).
15.2 Industrial processes for processing and vitrification of high-level liquid waste (HLLW).

. 2.1. The AVM process.
. 2.2. The Pamela process.
.2.3. The technology at the radiochemical plant of the combine “Majak”.
15.3. The new approaches to vitrification technology of the high-level liquid waste solutions: micro-wave technology.
15.4. High frequency technology for vitrification of the high-level liquid waste solutions.
15.5. Plasma technology for processing of the condensed radioactive waste.
. 5.1. Vitrification of liquid radioactive waste in the plasma reactor.
.5.2. Plasma melting of the solid incombustible radioactive waste.
.5.3. Plasma processing of the unsorted solid radioactive waste in the shaft furnace with plasma-fuel burners.
15.6. Combined plasma induction technology for reprocessing of condensed radioactive waste.
15.6.1. Disadvantages of plasma, microwave and high frequency technologies and technique.
15.6.2. Projects concerning combined plasma induction technology for reprocessing and vitrification of radioactive waste.


16. ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED HYPOTHETICAL SCHEME OF THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE, MODERNIZED ON THE BASIS OF ELECTROTECHNOLOGY, FROM TECHNI-CAL, ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL POINTS OF VIEW.
16.1. Plasma technology in extractive metallurgy.
16.2. Plasma technique and technology for producing uranium oxides from re-extracts of refining and regeneration plants.
16.3. Plasma process for slag-free reduction of uranium from oxide raw materials.
16.4. Plasma – rectification technology for conversion of depleted in u-235 uranium hexafluoride to triuran-octaoxide and aqueous hydrogen fluoride.
16.5. Frequency technique for obtaining of carbide, boride and metallic materials and for other appli-cations.
16.6. Plasma – electromagnetic technology for reduction of metals from volatile fluoride raw material.
16.7. New systems for separation of disperse and gaseous products and fine purification of gas ex-hausts of technological equipment.
16.8. Electrotechnical basis of plasma and high frequency processes as applied to chemical and metal-lurgical stages of the nuclear fuel cycle: dc arc, high frequency, microwave and laser generators of technological plasmas.
16.9. Technical and economic efficiency of plasma chemical and metallurgical processes in the nuclear fuel cycle.
16.10. Probable variants of the nuclear fuel cycle modernized on the basis of electrotechnology.

17. REFERENCES.

Index

   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2007
   ISBN: 978-1-60021-613-8
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Plasma and High Frequency Processes for Obtaining and Processing Materials in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. 2nd Edition.