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Multi-hop Ad hoc Networks from Theory to Reality
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Editors: Marco Conti (Inst for Informatics and Telematics, Pisa Italy) ; Jon Crowcroft and Andrea Passarella (Univ. of Cambridge)
Book Description:
Subject Scope, Computer Science, Computer networks, Communications, Electronics

Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks are collections of mobile nodes connected together over a wireless medium. These nodes can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, “ad-hoc” network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure, (e.g., disaster recovery environments). Multi-hop ad hoc networking is not a new concept having been around for over twenty years, mainly exploited to design tactical networks. Recently, emerging wireless networking technologies for consumer electronics are pushing ad hoc networking outside the military domain. The simplest ad hoc network is a peer-to-peer network formed by a set of stations within the range of each other that dynamically configure themselves to set up a temporary single-hop ad hoc network. Bluetooth piconet is the most widespread example of single-hop ad hoc networks. 802.11 WLANs can also be implemented according to this paradigm, thus enabling laptops’ communications without the need of an access point. Single-hop ad hoc networks just interconnect devices that are within the same transmission range. This limitation can be overcome by exploiting the multi-hop ad hoc paradigm. In this new networking paradigm, the users' devices are the network, and they must cooperatively provide the functionalities that are usually provided by the network infrastructure. Nearby nodes can communicate directly by exploiting a single-hop wireless technology (e.g., Bluetooth, 802.11, etc.), while devices that are not directly connected communicate by forwarding their traffic via a sequence of intermediate devices. As, generally, the users’ devices are mobile, these networks are often referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs). Being completely self organizing, MANETs are attractive for specialized scenarios like disaster recovery, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, and home networking. Unfortunately, nowadays they have a very limited penetration as a network technology for mass-market deployment.To turn mobile ad hoc networks in a commodity, we should move to a more pragmatic scenario in which multi-hop ad hoc networks are used as a flexible and “low cost” extension of Internet. Indeed, a new class of networks is emerging from this view: the mesh networks. Unlike MANETs, where no infrastructure exists and every node is mobile, in a mesh network there is a set of nodes, the mesh routers, which are stationary and form a wireless multi-hop ad hoc backbone. Some of the routers are attached to the Internet, and provide connectivity to the whole mesh network. Mesh routers are not users’ devices but they represent the infrastructure of a mesh. Routing protocols running on mesh routers allow the backbone to be self configuring, self healing, and easy to set up. Client nodes connect to the closest mesh router, and use the wireless ad hoc backbone to access the Internet. Mesh networks are moving multi-hop ad hoc networks from emergency-disaster-relief and battlefield scenarios to the main networking market.While mesh networks represent a short-term direction for the evolution of MANETs, opportunistic networking constitutes a long-term direction for the evolution of the ad hoc networking concept. The bottom line of this paradigm is providing end-to-end communication support also to very dynamic ad hoc networks, in which users disconnection is a feature rather than an exception. Nodes can be temporarily disconnected and/or the networks can be partitioned, and the mobility of nodes creates the communication opportunities. The main idea is thus to opportunistically exploit, for data delivery, nodes’ mobility and contacts with other nodes/networks. In opportunistic networks the communication is still multi-hop, with intermediate nodes acting as routers but, in this case, forwarding is not necessarily “on-the-fly”. Intermediate nodes store the messages when no forwarding opportunity exists (e.g., no other nodes are in the transmission range, or neighbours are not suitable for that communication), and exploit any contact opportunity with other mobile devices to forward the data toward the destination. In this view, the existence of a simultaneous path between sender and receiver is not mandatory (as in traditional MANET) to communicate. This networking paradigm is well suited for a world of pervasive devices equipped with various wireless networking technologies (802.11 family, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.) which are frequently out of range from a global network but are in the range of other networked devices, and sometime cross areas where some type of connectivity is available (e.g. Wi-Fi hotspots). Among multi-hop ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks have a special role. A sensor network is composed by a large number of small sensor nodes, which are typically densely (and possibly randomly) deployed inside the area in which a phenomenon is being monitored. Wireless multi-hop ad hoc networking techniques constitute the basis for sensor networks, too. However, the special constraints imposed by the unique characteristics of sensing devices, and by the application requirements, make the solutions designed for multi-hop wireless networks (generally) not suitable for sensor networks. First of all, power management is a “pervasive” issue in the overall design of a sensor network. Sensor networks utilize on-board batteries with limited energy that cannot be replenished in most application scenarios. Furthermore, sensor networks produce a shift in the networking paradigm from a node-centric to a data-centric view. The aim of a sensor network is to collect information about events occurring in the sensor field rather than supporting the communications between users’ devices. Multi-hop ad hoc network technologies have big potentialities for innovative applications of great impact on our everyday life. However, after almost a decade of research, ad hoc networking technologies are rarely used and have not yet affected our way of using wireless networks. It is believed that this is due to a wrong approach in the research, which was dominated by simulation modeling and theoretical analyses with only few attempts to build network prototypes to understand how well MANETs work in reality. In the last few years, this stimulated a new community of researchers combining theoretical research on ad hoc networking with experiences/measurements obtained by implementing ad hoc network prototypes. The aim of this book is to present some of the most relevant results achieved by applying an experimental approach to the research on multi-hop ad hoc networks. The unique aspect of the book is to present measurements, experiences and lessons obtained by implementing ad hoc networks prototypes.

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1 - Real-World Evaluation of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks; pp. 1-22
(Wolfgang Kiess and Martin Mauve, Computer Networks Research Group,
Univ. of Düsseldorf, Germany)

Chapter 2 - MobileMAN: Design, Integration and Experimentation of Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks; pp. 23-34
(Marco Conti, Institute for Informatics and Telematics (IIT)
National Research Council (CNR), Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 3 - Design of an Enhanced MAC Architecture for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks; pp. 35-51
(Ralph Bernasconi, DTI, Univ. of Applied Science (SUPSI) Via Cantonale, Manno, Switzerland, Raffaele Bruno, Marco Conti, IIT Institute, National Research Council (CNR), Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 4 - AODV and OLSR Evaluation in a Real Small-Scale Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks; pp. 53-69
(Eleonora Borgia and Marco Conti, Pervasive Computing & Networking Lab,Institute for Informatics and Telematics (IIT), Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 5 - Implementation and Experimentation of a Layer-2 Architecture for Interconnecting Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Networks to the Internet; pp. 71-95
(Emilio Ancillotti, Raffaele Bruno, Marco Conti, IIT Institute, National Research Council (CNR), Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 6 - Experimental Analysis of TCP Performance in Static Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks; pp. 97-114
(Giuseppe Anastasi, Emilio Ancillotti, Marco Conti, Dept. of Information Engineering, Univ. of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, National Research Council, Italy)

Chapter 7 - P2P Systems on MANETs: from Pastry to CrossROAD;
pp. 115-130
(Franca Delmastro and Marco Conti, Pervasive Computing & Networking Lab., Institute for Informatics and Telematics (IIT), National Research Council (CNR),Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 8 - MobileMAN Evaluation in a Real Medium-scale MANET;
pp. 131-152
(Eleonora Borgia, Franca Delmastro and Marco Conti, Pervasive Computing & Networking Lab. (PerLab),IIT, Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 9 - Group-Communication Applications for MANETs: Requirements and Real Implementations; pp. 153-177
(Andrea Passarella and Franca Delmastro, IIT Institute, Pisa, Italy)

Chapter 10 - Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System; pp. 179-202
(Elgan Huang, Wenjun Hu, and Jon Crowcroft, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, William Gates Building, Cambridge, United Kingdom)

Chapter 11 - Design and Evaluation of iMesh: An Infrastructure-Mode Wireless Mesh Network; pp. 203-224
(Vishnu Navda, Anand Kashyap and Samir R. Das, Computer Science Dept., State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY)

Chapter 12 - XORs in the Air: practical Wireless Network Coding;
pp. 225-240
(Dina Katabi and Sachin Katti)

Chapter 13 - Internet Access for Mobile Users: From Drive-Thru Internet to Delay-Tolerant Ad-Hoc Networking; pp. 241-277
(Jörg Ott and Dirk Kutscher)

Chapter 14 - Practical Experience with an Experimental Wireless Sensor Network for Environmental Observations; pp. 279-295
(Edoardo Biagioni, Univ. of Hawaii, Dept. of Information and Computer Science)


   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2007
   ISBN: 1-60021-605-6
   Status: AV
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
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Multi-hop Ad hoc Networks from Theory to Reality