Nanotechnology is a “catch-all” description of activities at the level of atoms and molecules that have applications in the real world. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, or 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Nanotechnology is now used in precision engineering, such as the fabrication of devices within that size range in electronics and electromechanical systems, and in new materials development as well as in mainstream biomedical applications in areas such as gene therapy, drug delivery and novel drug discovery techniques. It is a highly-multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as applied physics, materials science, interface and colloid science, device physics, supramolecular chemistry, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. The text, written by a multidisciplinary team of chemists, physicists and a mathematician, explores the basic science of nanoparticles, discussing the chemical, mechanical, magnetic, optical and geometric properties of nanoparticles and nanotubes. Exercises and activities for nanotechnology are included. The text is written for an undergraduate sophomore-level audience in order to bring introductory notions of nanotechnology as early as possible in the undergraduate curriculum. Only a background of freshman mathematics, chemistry and physics is needed. The text was written through an NSF grant (No. DMR-0304487) as part of the NSF Nanotechnology in Undergraduate Education program.