Biomarker Discovery and Biotherapeutics Applications of Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting and Bioluminescence Light-Emitting Chromophore-Protein Complexes in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
Authors: Prasad (S) Koka
Abstract: We have since the 1970’s embarked on the development of biologically derived fluorophore-protein complexes that will find applications in the communicable and non-communicable disease etiology processes and their cures. We have since then become largely successful in these endeavors along with interspersed contributions also from investigators who have generally restricted to working in confined disciplines. Their encompassment with our works as this investigator has traversed his definitely chosen and not merely a circumstantial, coincidental, or accidental step-wise multi-disciplinary scientific path from biophysics to regenerative medicine spanning these lines of investigations for last four decades have finally yielded the much necessitated disease related applied biological interventions for human benefits. Taking a cue from our early investigations and findings on which we call attention to the identification and characterization of the use of the primary light-emitting lumazine precursor of riboflavin which is 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityl lumazine-protein complex which we had derived from the bioluminescence bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum) wherein it functions as a naturally occurring fluorescence light emitter (LumP). These in vivo phenomena have been a precursor to the subsequent developments in vitro. This in vivo to in vitro investigation path of ours has been also comprised among others of binding of photosynthetic light-harvesting marine dinoflagellate algae (Glenodinium sp.) derived peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PerCP) complex-labeled monoclonal antibodies useful in the development of flow cytometry. These fluorescence labeled antibodies bound antigens which include those of communicable infectious diseases (HIV/AIDS – env-gp160, gag-p24), non-communicable but also potential hereditary and malignant disorders (Cancer/Tumor Markers – Melan-A/Mart-1 of melanoma), normal immune response cells (Human/Mouse/species cellular MHC/TCR/CD45/CD33/CD56/CD19/CD41), and of types of stem cells (CD34/CD38/c-Mpl/Oct4/Neuropilin-1/SOX17). Such antigens have been analyzed by us and other investigators by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS – cell surface and intracellular binding), confocal fluorescence microscopy, or/and immunohistochemistry, to determine qualitative and quantitative antigen expression levels and their mechanistic implications. We have followed stem cell differentiation patterns and signaling mechanisms through marker antigen-antibody binding wherein the antibodies are labeled with covalently linked fluorophore-protein complexes or fluorescence emitting chromophores. These complexes among others also have included PerCP. We are also now in the process of developing flow cytometry applications of additional visible light emitting chromophore-protein complexes through industrial collaborations.
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