The Potential Impact of Various Physiological Mechanisms on Outcomes in TBI, mTBI, Concussion and PPCS (pp. 215-256)
Authors: Joel Brandon Brock, Samuel Yanuck, Michael Pierce, Michael Powell, Steven Geanopulos, Steven Noseworthy, Datis Kharrazian, Chris Turnpaugh, Albert Comey, and Glen Zielinski
Abstract: The need for effective clinical interventions in chronic neurological diseases such as TBI and other variants of chronic neurological conditions have been called for in the literature. The cellular and neurochemical mechanisms addressed in recent literature have focused around three common themes that traverse all of these condition classes: immune and autoimmune mechanisms, inflammatory pathways and oxidative phosphorylation or other energy production damage. Limits to the effectiveness of pharmaceutical and surgical approaches are apparent, and complicated by the physiological interconnectedness of such pathways. A growing call for non-drug, non-surgical options has evolved due to the dangers of poly-pharmacy, the lifestyle illnesses, and emerging evidence pointing to functional measures and methods. This paper surveys and links selected studies of specific, measurable effects of brain injury on several body systems, and it indicates an emerging path toward outcome-based multifactorial functional neurological assessment and treatment of some of the sequelae of chronic TBI and mTBI) (mild traumatic brain injury).