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Cannabinoid Receptor- and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Neural Circuits of the Main Olfactory Bulb (pp. 37-62) $100.00
Authors:  (Thomas Heinbockel, Ze-Jun Wang, Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA)
Abstract:
One of the emerging principles of synaptic processing in the main olfactory bulb is the
dominance of modulatory input. The relay from the nose to output neurons (mitral and
tufted cells) and from main olfactory bulb output neurons to higher order olfactory
centers is strongly regulated by local intrabulbar circuitry, including GABAergic
interneurons, such as periglomerular cells and granule cells, and by centrifugal inputs to
the main olfactory bulb from other brain areas. Therefore, a pressing issue in the
organization and operation of the olfactory system is the functional significance of
modulatory input. The focus of this review is on two modulator systems that both employ
G-protein coupled receptors: (1) brain-produced signaling molecules, endogenous
cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and their receptors, cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) and
(2) the neurotransmitter glutamate and its metabotropic receptors (metabotropic
glutamate receptors, mGluRs).
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as an important modulator system, which
involves cannabinoid receptors, CB1R, and their endogenous activators, the
endocannabinoids. The main olfactory bulb expresses high levels of CB1R, specifically
in the input region, the glomerular layer. However, our understanding of the
physiological role of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors for neural signaling in
the main olfactory bulb is just emerging. New electrophysiological evidence has
established that the endocannabinoid system plays a functional role in regulating
neuronal activity and signaling in main olfactory bulb glomeruli.
Mitral/tufted cells as well as inhibitory interneurons in the main olfactory bulb express
high levels of mGluRs. A combination of patch-clamp electrophysiology, voltagesensitive
dye imaging, microsurgery, and use of mGluR gene knockout technology has
illuminated the role of mGluRs in the main olfactory bulb and points toward novel and
potent regulatory roles of these receptors in shaping olfactory output from the main
olfactory bulb to higher olfactory centers in the brain. 


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Cannabinoid Receptor- and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Neural Circuits of the Main Olfactory Bulb (pp. 37-62)