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Adrenal Cell Secretion in the Italian Wall Lizard: Actions of Regulatory Neuropeptides (pp. 143-158) $100.00
Authors:  (Salvatore Valiante, Marina Prisco, Rosaria Sciarrillo, Maurizio Forte, Anna Sellitti, Piero Andreuccetti, Maria De Falco and Vincenza Laforgia, University of Naples, Italy)
The action of the regulatory neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) carries out through the shared receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 and the exclusive PACAP receptor PAC1, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. Formerly, we showed that the administration of both peptides enhance catecholamine, corticosterone and aldosterone release from adrenal cell co-culture. Further, the distribution of VIP and PACAP receptors in the adrenal glands of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula, was previously demonstrated: VPAC1 was found within steroidogenic tissue, VPAC2 and PAC1 within chromaffin tissue. In the present study we investigated the c-AMP signaling pathway involved in the VIP and PACAP-induced secretion of adrenal cell co-cultures. Using VPAC1 antagonist [Ac-His1, D-Phe2,Lys15,Arg16]VIP-(3-7),GH-releasing factor-(8-27)-NH2 (VPAC1-A), the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6-38 (PAC1-A) and VPAC2 immunoneutralized cells, in in vitro VIP- or PACAP-treated adrenal cell co-cultures we showed that the VIP- and PACAP-induced steroid and peptide hormone secretion is carried out through the activation of selective receptors which promote, in time-dependent manner, the production of c-AMP: after 1 hour of PACAP/PAC1treatment c-AMP production is +62.5% compared to control. After 3 hours of stimulation with VIP/VPAC1 administration, the c-AMP production was increased of +192% compared with control. After 6 hours of treatment neither VIP nor PACAP was able to stimulate c-AMP production. Further, we showed that VIP enhances c-AMP production through the binding of the VPAC1 receptor and PACAP increases c-AMP production through the interaction with the PAC1 receptor exclusively. Thus, our investigation showed that the activation of adenylate-cyclase is required to permit the in vitro VIP and PACAP
stimulation and PACAP is faster than VIP to induce c-AMP production in lizard adrenal cell secretion. 

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Adrenal Cell Secretion in the Italian Wall Lizard: Actions of Regulatory Neuropeptides (pp. 143-158)