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Surgical Pinealectomy in Hamsters (pp. 99-136) $100.00
Authors:  (Alper Karakas, Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey)
Pineal gland is a small pine-shaped structure located in the
epithalamus of the brain and melatonin is the main hormone of this gland
that informs the body about the environmental light and dark. Melatonin
modulates many physiological functions such as sleep, circadian, visual,
cerebrovascular, reproductive, neuroendocrine, neuroimmunological and
behavioral functions of the rodents. The removal of the pineal gland
(pinealectomy) abolishes the rhythmic endogenous melatonin release and
decreases the plasma levels of melatonin significantly. Pinealectomy
operation in Syrian hamster may be examined under the four different
sections. First, all necessary equipments used in pinealectomy operation
is introduced. Second, the hamster is prepared for the surgery. This starts
with the anesthesia. In anesthetized hamster, the head is shaved and the
surgical area is sterilized. Hamster is placed in a stereotaxic apparatus to
stabilize the head during the surgery. Third, the surgery procedures are
applied. An incision is made in the scalp. Muscle attachments are
removed from the dorsal skull.
After drying the skull, an incomplete circular cut is made with a
dental drill burr at the  (lambda) suture and a piece of cranium covering
the pineal gland is folded forward anteriorly. Fine-tipped forceps is used
to extend into the confluence of the sinuses to grasp and remove the
pineal gland. Aspiration is used to control the hemorraging. After
removal of the pineal gland, the bone flap is replaced and a small square
of absorbable gelatin sponge is applied to the skull surface to help
promote clotting. The scalp is closed with stainless steel surgical clips
and pinealectomy ends. Finally, the post surgery procedures are applied.
The incision is treated with Newskin adhesive to prevent any
contamination. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drug injections
are applied. Hamster is placed on a heating apparatus till it awakes. After
awakening, the analgesic drug injections are applied every eight hours for
two days. 

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Surgical Pinealectomy in Hamsters (pp. 99-136)