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Authors:  (Naofumi Morita, Sang Ha Park and Tomoko Maeda, Department of Food Packaging Technology, Toyo College of Food Technology, Hyogo, Japan, and others)
Abstract:
Quinoa is currently receiving a great deal of attention as a
replacement for popular cereals with wheat flours to improve diet, as
quinoa contains more nutrients and minerals than wheat flours. The flour
characteristics and processing properties of quinoa for baked products
have been presumed to be poor compared with wheat flours, making the
incorporation of quinoa into foodstuffs difficult. However, using quinoa
as a substitute for wheat flours may provide an advantage in reducing
wheat-allergenic reactions. Therefore, to further develop the functional
properties of quinoa flours, the grain was germinated. Quinoa germinated
with a yield of 98% at 30oC for 48 hr. During the germination, total and
essential amino acids increased 2.5 and 3.6-fold, respectively. In
particular, GABA content and essential amino acid contents increased
rapidly during the 24 hr-germination. Substitution of 10% germinated
quinoa flour for wheat flour made distinctly harder dough. In a
Fermograph, the control and 24 hr-samples contained high amounts of
both inner and total CO2 in the gas cell. The loaf volume of the bread
made with 24 hr-germinated quinoa flour substituted for wheat flour was
the largest among the germinated samples; however, these differences
were not statistically significant. Breadcrumbs of the control and 24 hrsamples
became firm slower than those of the 48 and 72 hr-samples,
indicating slower staling.
Linolenic acid (18:3) was the major glycolipid (GL) fatty acid in the
control quinoa, and linoleic (18:2), oleic (18:1) and palmitic (16:0) acids
were the major nonpolar lipid (NL), GL and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids
in the germinated samples, respectively. During germination, oleic acid
increased but linoleic acid decreased. The ratio of saturated,
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated NL and PL fatty acids approached
3:4:3. Additionally, the ω3/ω6 ratio in NL, PL and GL became close to
the value for unsaturated fatty acids in the traditional Japanese diet. 


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Germinated Quinoa for Functional Foods (pp. 93-110)