In 2005, Americans paid about $2.1 trillion in combined federal taxes, including income, payroll, and excise taxes, or about 16.8 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). These taxes fund the services provided by government. As taxpayers, we balance the costs of taxes with the benefits of government. The goal of tax policy is to design a tax system that produces the desired amount of revenue and balances the minimization of compliance and efficiency costs with other objectives, such as equity, transparency, and administrability. This new book examines the detail which is where vested interests do their damage.