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Comparative Genomics of Polyamines Pathway in Amitochondriate Excavata Trichomonas (pp. 115-134) $100.00
Authors:  (María Elizbeth Alvarez Sánchez, Laura Itzel Quintas Granados, César López Camarillo and Bertha Isabel Carvajal Gamez, Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM), México City, Mexico, and others)
Abstract:
The recently introduced “Excavata taxa” is classified by its morphological and some
molecular characteristics and this taxa includes at least ten distinct groups such as
Jakobids, Malawimonas, Retortamonads, Trimastix (e.g. Trichomonas), Carpediemonas,
Diplomonads (e.g. Giardia), Heterolobosea, Oxymonads, Parabasalids and Euglenozoa
(e.g. Trypanosoma). Protozoan pathogens classified into the Excavata group can cause
disease and death in millions of humans, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of
developing countries. These pathogens are dependent of polyamines for their growth,
survival, and virulence properties. Polyamines are polycationic compounds present in all
biological materials and have been implicated in a wide variety of biological reactions,
including synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Polyamines biosynthetic enzymes are
promising targets for drug development. The ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitors,
DL-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and 1-4- diamino- 2- butanone (DAB), are about
to become a first-line drug against human parasitosis such as trichomonosis, giardiasis,
and trypanosomiasis. Enzyme involved in putrescine and spermidine synthesis and
utilization, such as arginase, ornithine decarboxylase (odc), S-adenosylmethionine
decarboxylase (adometdc), spermidine synthase, have been described in Trichomonas
vaginalis and Trypanosoma, while they have been understudied in G. lamblia. The
completion of T. vaginalis, and T. brucei genome and the Giardia genomic information
combined with advances in understanding of polyamines pathway can contribute to the
knowledge of virulence properties and modern drug discovery. In this review, we
emphasize the relevance of these enzymes as drug targets. 


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Comparative Genomics of Polyamines Pathway in Amitochondriate Excavata <i>Trichomonas</i> (pp. 115-134)