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Insight into Genomics of Trichomonas vaginalis (pp. 101-114) $100.00
Authors:  (Satendra Singh, Atul Kumar Singh, Budhayash Gautam, Prashant A. Jain and Gulshan Wadhwa, Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, JSBB, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India and others)
Trichomonas vaginalis is an unicellular protozoan described first by Donne in
1836.It causes trichomoniasis, number one non-viral and second most sexually
transmitted disease (STD). The world health organization (WHO) has estimated 250
million infections in the world each year. Trichomoniasis is associated with high
morbidity, bad pregnancy outcomes, and enhanced risk for HIV and cervical cancer.
During 1960s and 1970s, the research focused on biochemical tests and microscopic
examination of T. vaginalis. Its genome draft was published in 2007 which reveals many
unusual genomic and biochemical features like, exceptionally large genome size of 160
Mb, which is nearly ten times larger than predicted earlier, the presence of
hydrogenosome instead of mitochondria, gene duplication, lateral gene transfer
mechanism, presence of miRNAs, drug resistance etc. Also around two-thirds of the
sequences consist in repetitive and transposable elements, which reflects a massive,
evolutionarily expansion of the genome. There are clear evidences of shaping of
metabolic pathways and amplification of specific gene families. Above genomic features
indicate adaptations of this parasite during its evolution to the urogenital environment
from enteric environment. RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in T. vaginalis can be used
for the manipulation of its gene expression. About two-thirds of the proteome are still
represented by putative uncharacterized proteins. Therefore this significant but neglected
parasite demands immediate attention coupled with in depth genomic and proteomic
research. Such studies will help in getting insight into genome evolution, pathogenesis,
drug resistance, metabolic pathways and biochemical activities of T. vaginalis. This will
not only create awareness about the infection but also enhance our understanding in
designing and development of novel methods for diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis

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Insight into Genomics of <i>Trichomonas vaginalis</i> (pp. 101-114)