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Visible Red and Near Infra-Red Lights is Absorbed by Cytochrome C Oxidase and Stimulates the Production of ATP (pp. 161-176) $100.00
Authors:  (Nicolette N. Houreld, Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, South Africa)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), a nucleoside triphosphate, is involved in
transporting chemical energy into a cell. ATP is produced in the mitochondria by the
enzyme ATP synthase by the oxidative phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
The electron transport chain (ETC), located within the mitochondrial inner membrane, is
a series of enzyme complexes and is involved in the transfer of electrons from a donor to
an acceptor. There are four complexes (Complex I to IV); five if you include ATP
synthase. During the transfer of these electrons, protons are pumped across the
mitochondrial inner membrane and into the intermembrane space thereby creating a
proton motive force, or electrochemical proton gradient (ΔΨ). ATP is generated when
these protons flow back into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase. Low
Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI), otherwise known as phototherapy or
photobiostimulation, has been shown to increase ATP and the mitochondrial membrane
potential (MMP) in vitro. LILI involves the use of low powered lasers or light emitting
diodes (LEDs) to stimulate cellular processes and metabolism. Cellular responses are the
result of changes in photoacceptor molecules, or chromophores. It is thought that
cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the ETC (complex IV), is a light absorbing
chromophore for visible red and near infra-red (NIR) light. When cytochrome c oxidase
absorbs proton energy, the redox state of the mitochondria is changed and there is an
increase in ATP production as well as intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). This in turn leads to
stimulation of cellular process. This chapter looks at the effect of LILI on the
mitochondria and its influence on ATP production. 

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Visible Red and Near Infra-Red Lights is Absorbed by Cytochrome C Oxidase and Stimulates the Production of ATP (pp. 161-176)