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Usefulness of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Technique to Assess in Situ Detergency Process Efficiency (pp. 229-240) $100.00
Authors:  (Olivier Favrat, Joseph Gavoille, Lotfi Aleya, Guy Monteil, Institut Femto(ENSMM, Université de Franche-Comté), Besançon, France, and others)
This chapter presents an application in situ of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance
(QCM): the monitoring of a detergency process. A method is developed to investigate the
influence of cleaning parameters on the surface contamination removal. To illustrate this
method, this work focuses on the influence of detergent concentration and initial
contamination on the necessary time to remove stearic acid (C18H36O2) from a goldplated
quartz crystal surface. The different steps of contamination removal were assessed
in real time by monitoring the variations of the quartz resonator frequency. These
observations highlight i) an adsorption and absorption of water and detergent on the
stearic acid layer and ii) the detachment of the fatty acid layer. For this second point, it
had been shown that the time of stearic acid removal is a function of the detergent
concentration until a critical value. Below this critical concentration, cleaning time
decreases while detergent concentration increases. Above the critical concentration, an
asymptotic value is reached and adding detergent has no more effect on the cleaning
time. Cleaning duration is also strongly influenced by the initial contamination:
increasing sample contamination enhances removal time. However, no clear correlation
between the two parameters can be obtained. It seems therefore that, thanks to its ability
to determine optimal parameters for each detergent, the QCM technique appears to be of
great interest in monitoring and optimising cleaning protocols. 

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Usefulness of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Technique to Assess in Situ Detergency Process Efficiency (pp. 229-240)