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QCM in the Active Mode: Theory and Experiment (pp. 1-64) $100.00
Authors:  (F.N. Dultsev, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia)
QCM as an active element for sensing applications is a promising achievement
allowing us to expect essential advances in the development of chemical and biological
sensors. Unlike for the conventional method of QCM operation, in the active mode it
plays an active part towards an analyte fixed on its surface. This approach ensured a 3
orders of magnitude higher sensitivity of QCM than that achieved using the conventional
method. A mathematical model describing the interactions of a point mass attached to the
QCM surface was also developed. With this model, it became possible to optimize not
only the measurement circuit but also the geometry of the QCM plate involved in
Further upgrading the procedure we proposed to use QCM in the threshold mode. An
additional gain in sensitivity (by two orders of magnitude) was thus achieved. This made
it possible to use QCM as gas sensor for very low concentrations. The major advantage of
the use of QCM in this mode is the possibility to measure not only the concentration of
an analyte but also the force of its rupture from the surface. With specific surface
modifications, this allows us to identify a wide range of objects. The procedure is
applicable either for gas sensing or for studies in biology and medicine. The procedure is
suitable for identification of phages (10-20 individuals), viruses (e.g. a single herpes virus
can be detected), bacteria etc. This procedure allows measuring bond rupture forces;
similar to atomic force microscopy, it does not involve the action of electromagnetic
radiation and thus it is non-perturbing and well suitable for biological applications to
study weak (hydrogen) bonding. In comparison with AFM, the proposed QCM-based
procedure is much simpler and cheaper in its instrumentation, and time-saving, as there is
no need to search for an object attached to the surface. 

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QCM in the Active Mode: Theory and Experiment (pp. 1-64)