Authors: (Gerard G. Dumancas, Befrika S. Murdianti, and Edralin A. Lucas)
Abstract: Arachidonic acid (AA) is an essential fatty acid (FA) classified as belonging to the
ω-6 group. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in all meats especially red
meat, dairy fat, and egg yolks. It is stored in the cell membranes and is responsible for
sending signals of adaptive changes in the case of muscle damage or other types of
stimuli. The AA cascade generates a family of bioactive lipids that modulate diverse
physiological and pathophysiological responses. Three main pathways are involved in the
metabolism of AA in the kidneys that produce different AA metabolites which are known
to play vital functions in the renal system. These three main pathways include
monooxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and lipooxygenase. Out of the three pathways, the
cyclooxygenase pathway plays the most important role in the renal system. The
metabolites coming from this pathway are the prostaglandins (PGs) and their functions,
interactions, and locations in the renal system will be discussed in depth in this chapter.
Lastly, the metabolites coming from the monooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways
will be briefly discussed in this chapter.