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Arachidonic Acid, Metabolic Syndrome and Alternative Therapeutic Agents (pp.115-132) $100.00
Authors:  (Guadalupe Baños, Roxana Carbó, and Israel Pérez-Torres)
The Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is considered a cluster of mostly modifiable risk
factors triggering a proinflammatory state, that provides a high risk of development of
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. To establish the MS, at least three of specific
cardiovascular disease risk factors might be included: obesity, type 2 diabetes,
dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension. It has been shown that arachidonic acid
(AA) metabolism is involved in MS, and an experimental model of MS was investigated
in this pathway. This model has been developed by the administration of 30 % sucrose in
the drinking water of Wistar rats, just after weanling and then during a further six
months. In this model, the level of AA in plasma is reduced, which suggests that its
utilization in vivo is increased, as may also be the synthesis of its metabolites, particularly
those which have vasoconstriction properties, such as prostaglandins (PGs) and
thromboxane (Tx). These metabolites would contribute to the hypertension present in the
model as well as the in vitro vascular reactivity in aortas and perfused isolated kidneys.
Measurements have demonstrated that vasoconstrictor metabolites and cyclooxygenase
(COX) are more abundant in male kidney tissue, as well as in the kidney perfusate. In
experimental animal models, castration of male rats improves some of the symptoms of
MS, including normalization of the levels of AA. The opposite occurred, when females
were ovariectomized. When sex hormone replacement was performed, males receiving
testosterone showed MS deterioration, while females with estrogen replacement showed
improvement in their MS symptoms such as decreased hypertension.
Other AA metabolic pathways are those of the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome
P450 (CYP), which also produce vasoconstrictor metabolites such as some leukotrienes
(Lks), HETEs (hydroxyeicosanoic acids) and EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), which
participate in MS.
MS alternative therapeutic programs may include administration of glycine, which
we have found beneficial in our model, because it normalizes AA circulating level and
renal tissue alterations, and drinking Jamaica leaves infusions Hibiscus sabdariffa (3 %)
improves the MS conditions, and this has been used both in humans and animals,
particularly when the pathologies include diabetes. Likewise some reports have suggested
that the levels of AA metabolites may be modified by a Mediterranean diet with the
abundance of fish; for its -3 acid contents it may be beneficial; and moderate exercise is
also recommended.
In this chapter the authors will discuss some characteristics of the AA metabolism,
generally associated with cardiovascular pathologies and particularly with MS. Also,
details of the non-sexual effects of sex hormones and therapeutic agents, associated with
the pathology, are included. 

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Arachidonic Acid, Metabolic Syndrome and Alternative Therapeutic Agents (pp.115-132)