Role of Drug-metabolizing Enzymes in Astroglial Function (pp.1-16)
Authors: (Amruthesh C. Shivachar, Dakota Jackson and Shere`Paris, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX USA)
Abstract: Astrocytes are the principal glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). These cells are often regarded as supportive cells of the brain, performing mainly, neurotransmitters uptake, energy homoeostasis, neurotrophic factor release, and blood-brain barrier maintenance. Our own and other studies have produced a wealth of information suggesting that astrocytes are capable of producing key metabolic intermediates of polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid, mainly by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathways. The latter pathway produces epoxide metabolites which protect astroglial, neuronal, and vascular networks in a concerted manner and preserve CNS function in health and disease state. Furthermore, inhibitors of metabolic degradation of these glioprotective epoxides by a soluble epoxide hydrolase have been shown to be novel therapeutic targets for maintaining neuronal health in ischemic injury. This book chapter summarizes recent advances in (1) astrocytes structure and function, (2) astrocytes drug metabolizing enzymes and (3) astrocytes drug metabolizing enzymes as putative targets for therapyin normal astrocyte physiology as well as pathological conditions.