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Anionic Depollution by Layered Hydroxides (pp.169-194) $100.00
Authors:  (F. Delorme, A. Seron, LEMA, Université François Rabelais, Blois, France, and others)
Human activities have generated numerous pollutions due to heavy metals. Therefore, many remediation processes have been developed to trap these cations. Moreover, materials presenting cation-exchange properties such as clays are very common [1-8].
Pollutions due to anions have been less studied in the past even if they can be of major importance in some areas, due to geological aspects and/or human activities. The utmost critical and studied anionic pollution, which is a major public health problem, is certainly the presence of arsenic in drinking waters of Bangladesh. Indeed, the average As concentration in water in Bangladesh is 0.06 mg.l-1, with values as high as 16 mg.l-1 [9]. These values are far beyond the 0.01 mg.l-1 threshold fixed by the World Health Organization [10]. However many other anions can be the cause of various pollutions. Human activities can generate important concentrations of fluoride in water. Tanzania is one of the most affected countries : indeed, concentrations in piped waters as high as 8 mg.l-1 during the rain season and 12.7 mg.l-1 during the dry season are observed [11]. The threshold value fixed by the World Health Organization values is 1.5 mg.l-1, far below the concentrations observed in Tanzania [10]. Intensive agricultural activities are known to generate nitrates water pollutions. This is the case of Brittany, the western part of France, where nitrates concentrations up to 250 mg.l-1 can be observed [12]. These values are far beyond the 50 mg.l-1 WHO threshold [10]. And many other similar examples concerning chromates [13], phosphates [14], selenium [15], chlorides [16], vanadates [17], sulfates [18], molybdates [19], mercury chlorides [20] or cyanides [21] could be mentioned.
Nowadays no pertinent and economical depollution processes are useful for such applications : most of them are complicated to use (biological ones) or generate big amounts of by-products (zerovalent iron). Nevertheless innovative solutions could be furnished using materials with anionic exchange capacity.
Unfortunately, materials presenting anion-exchange properties are less abundant than materials presenting cation-exchange properties. The main family of materials presenting anion-exchange properties are layered hydroxides. Two different families of layered hydroxides are mainly studied : Layered Double Hydroxides ([M(II)1-xM(III)x(OH)2] [An-]x/n.mH2O) containing both divalent and trivalent cations, and Double Hydroxide Salts that only contains divalent cations.
The synthesis and structure of these materials will be presented in this chapter, as well as the origin of their anion exchange properties and their potential for anionic depollution. 

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Anionic Depollution by Layered Hydroxides (pp.169-194)