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Delamination of Layered Double Hydroxides: Methodologies, Characterization and Applications (pp.105-140) $100.00
Authors:  (Churchil A. Antonyraj, Paulmanickam Koilraj, Kannan Srinivasan, Discipline of Inorganic Materials & Catalysis, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), GB Marg, Bhavnagar, India)
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are ionic lamellar compounds that consist of positively charged metal hydroxide sheets and interlayers filled with anions. They are expressed by the general formula [M2+(1-x)M3+x(OH)2]An-x/n.mH2O, wherein M2+ and M3+are any divalent and trivalent metal ions capable of occupying the octahedral vacancies of brucite-like sheets and An- is any hydrated anion. The act of slicing or peeling of laminated layers into individual layers or sheets is called delamination and is also referred as exfoliation. Due to high charge density of the layers that result in strong electrostatic interaction, delamination of LDHs remained a challenge. Pioneering work by Prof. Besse and coworkers broke that then prevailing ideology to delaminate layers of LDHs in organic medium. LDHs on delamination give nanosheets of thickness around 15 nm with several micron in lateral dimensions and possess novel physical and chemical properties, compare to their corresponding microcrystalline powder form. Recently, the delaminated materials showed potential applications in films for sensing, composites for packaging, selective removal of noxious anions in trace concentrations, functional coatings, erasable high density information storage, electrochemical applications, anti-reflection coatings, optoelectronics and catalysis. In this chapter, we review the delamination of LDHs including the genesis, different methodologies adopted in the last decade, characterization of delaminated nanosheets and their applications in diverse domains. A novel and scalable two-step synthesis protocol of transition metal containing delaminated LDHs in water as dispersing medium developed in our laboratory and their
characterization are presented. Different strategies employed in delaminating LDHs with an endeavor to obtain high degree of delamination are discussed. An ingenious first time exploration of using delaminated LDHs for phosphate removal in environmental perspective is highlighted. Mechanism of phosphate uptake by delaminated LDHs is unraveled. A model pond system is conceptualized for onsite phosphate remediation and demonstrated on laboratory scale. The scope and further utilization of delaminated LDHs is summarized. 

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Delamination of Layered Double Hydroxides: Methodologies, Characterization and Applications (pp.105-140)