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Porphyrins: Chemistry, Properties and Applications (pp. 229-260) $100.00
Authors:  (Tien Quang Nguyen, Mary Clare Sison Escano, Hideaki Kasai, Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan)
During the past decade, porphyrin and its derivatives have been widely studied due
to their numerous physical/chemical properties and their applications in many fields such
as catalysis, sensors and photodynamic cancer therapy, among others. A porphyrin
molecule is a heterocyclic macrocycle derived from four pyrroline subunits
interconnected through their α-carbon atoms and methine bridges (=CH-). The porphyrin
molecule can coordinate hydrogen or metal cations in its center by four isoindole
nitrogen atoms. The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of porphyrin can be
well modified by varying the metal at its center or adding ligands onto the organic rings,
making them attractive candidates for many applications. Metal porphyrins have been
considered as one of the potential cathode catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
(PEFCs), where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) takes place. In nature, this reaction
to oxygen can be modeled by iron-porphyrin (FeP) - a part of heme considered as active
site of enzymes such as hemoglobin, which transports O2 molecules in vascular systems
and cytochrome oxidase where O2 is activated in an aerobic metabolism. Also, porphyrin
is considered as one of the building blocks of several porphyrin complexes of different
conjugation types such as tape-porphyrin and sheet-porphyrin. For instance, tapeporphyrin,
whose adjacent building blocks are fully linked via two β-carbon bonds and
one meso-carbon bond, has attracted much attention due to its extremely small highest
occupied - lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap making them
useful for molecular electronic devices like sensors and switches for gas detection. 

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Porphyrins: Chemistry, Properties and Applications (pp. 229-260)