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Biodiesel Production using Cation-Exchange Resin as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst pp. 235-248 $100.00
Authors:  (Yaohui Feng, Jianxin Li, Benqiao He, The State Key Lab of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, P. R. China, and others)
Biodiesel production through free fatty acids (FFA) esterification with methanol using cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous acid catalyst is becoming a hotspot. In this work, three types of cation-exchange resins (NKC-9, 0017 and D61) were employed to prepare biodiesel via the batch esterification of FFA from acidified oils generated from waste frying oils. According to this study, the catalytic activity of NKC-9 was higher than that of 0017 and D61. The FFA conversion by NKC-9 increased with increasing in the amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and time and methanol/oil molar ratio. The maximal conversion of reaction was approximately 90.0%. Further, NKC-9 resin exhibited good reusability in batch esterification. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the production was simplex and mainly composed of C16:0 (palmitic), C18:2 (linoleic), and C18:1 (oleic) acids of methyl ester, respectively. Furthermore, continuous esterification of acidified oil with methanol was carried out with NKC-9 resin in a fixed bed reactor with an internal diameter of 25 mm and a height of 450 mm to produce biodiesel. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in methanol/oil mass ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst bed height, whereas decreased with increases in initial water content in feedstock and feed flow rate. The FFA conversion kept over 98.0% during 500 h of continuous esterification processes under 2.8:1 methanol to oleic acid mass ratio, 44.0 cm catalyst bed height (the amount of packed resin 87.5 g), 0.62 ml/min feed flow rate and 65 C reaction temperature, showing a much high conversion and operational stability as compared with the batch esterification. Furthermore, the loss of sulfonic acid groups from NKC-9 resin into the production was not found during continuous esterification. In sum, NKC-9 resin as heterogeneous acid catalyst shows the potential commercial applications to esterification of FFA. 

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Biodiesel Production using Cation-Exchange Resin as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst pp. 235-248