Characterization of Emissions and Indoor Air Quality of Public Transport Buses using Alternative Fuels pp. 215-234
Authors: (Ashok Kumar, Akhil Kadiyala, Dinesh Somuri, Kaushik K. Shandilya, Srikar Velagapudi, Vinay Kumar V. Nerella, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio)
Abstract: This Chapter presents a summary of the results obtained from a field program using the Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority (TARTA) public transport buses, running on biodiesel blend and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. This TARTA research program is divided into two studies: exhaust emissions and indoor air quality. A comprehensive analysis of pollutant levels released from the tailpipe exhaust emissions resulting from the use of different biodiesel blends under different operating modes is included. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in buses operating on B20 grade biodiesel and ULSD has been studied for more than two years. Study of vehicular pollutant exposure resulted in concluding that it is safe for the passengers as well as drivers, with the indoor pollutant levels being well below the available health guidelines. Particulate matter filters collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed using computer controlled environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) to characterize shape and aspect ratio of the fine particulate matter.