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Valorization of Wastes and By-Products Derived from Biodiesel Manufacturing pp. 177-194 $100.00
Authors:  (J.A. Siles, M. Berrios, M.A. Martín, A. Martín, Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain)
Abstract:
Biodiesel fuels have recently drawn much attention due to the various advantages they have over petroleum-based fuels. However, the recent growth of the biodiesel industry has created a surplus of impure glycerol. This has resulted in a dramatic decrease in crude glycerol prices over the last few years and given rise to environmental concerns regarding the disposal of contaminated glycerol. On the other hand, the biodiesel obtained by alkaline transesterification requires purification. Water washing is frequently used; a process that generates large amounts of highly polluted wastewater. Consequently, the biodiesel industry has been forced to implement effective treatment technologies in order to fulfill the severe quality standards related to environmental protection that are currently being developed and to recover valuable compounds contained in wastes and by-products. Anaerobic digestion is an interesting way to treat and revalorize abundant and low-priced glycerol and wastewater streams. This chapter examines the performance and the stability of the anaerobic digestion process of glycerol-containing waste derived from biodiesel manufacturing. The glycerol was previously acidified with phosphoric acid and centrifuged in order to recover the catalyst used in the transesterification reaction (KOH) as agricultural fertilizer (potassium phosphates). The results reveal that pre-treated glycerol has a high level of anaerobic biodegradability (around 100% COD) and that a substantial quantity of methane can be obtained in this way (292 mL CH4/g COD removed at 1atm, 25ºC). In addition, the treatment of wastewater derived from biodiesel manufacturing (428 g COD/L) was studied. Firstly, wastewater was acidified to recover free fatty acids. After centrifuging, the aqueous phase underwent two different physical-chemical pre-treatments to demulsify the remnant organic matter: coagulation-flocculation and electrocoagulation. The effluents of both pre-treatments were subjected to biomethanization. Of the two physical-chemical pre-treatments performed, electrocoagulation was found to be the most suitable. 


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Valorization of Wastes and By-Products Derived from Biodiesel Manufacturing pp. 177-194