Biodiesel Preparation from Non-Edible Oils pp. 69-98
Authors: (S. Sivanesan, K.V. Thiruvengadaravi, V. Sathya Selva Bala, Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Tamilnadu, India)
Abstract: Oil provides energy for 95% of transportation and the demand of transport fuel continues to rise. According to a forecast made by the International Energy Agency (IEA) global oil demand will rise by about 1.6% from 75 mb/d in the year 2000 to 120 mb/d in 2030. Almost three quarters of the increase will be from the transport sector. Oil will remain the fuel of choice in road, sea and air transportation. In developing countries, the increase in demand for oil for use in transport sector is expected to grow at a much higher rate. All countries including India are grappling with the problem of meeting the ever increasing demand of transport fuel within the constraints of international commitments, legal requirements, environmental concerns and limited resources. In this connection transport fuels of biological origin have drawn a great deal of attention during the last two decades. Bio-fuel is a generic term that is used to refer to liquid or gaseous fuels that are produced from a biological source. The term liquid ‗bio-fuel‘ is more commonly used to refer to specific types of bio-fuels used as fossil fuel substitutes. These are further defined by the particular type of biomass from which they are made, and the degree to which they are refined before use. The most common types of liquid bio-fuel are straight vegetable oils, ethanol and biodiesel.