Biodiesel, Fossil Diesel and their Blends: Chemical and Toxicological Properties pp. 41-68
Authors: (Sergio Manzetti, Otto Andersen, Jan Czerwinski, Nanotoxicology Unit, Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway, and others)
Abstract: The world‘s air pollution problems are increasingly been related to automotive exhaust emissions. The implementation of diesel and biodiesel blends in passenger vehicle engines have gradually produced a new ecotoxicological profile of urban and rural air pollution, where nanoparticles, volatile exhaust fractions, microparticles and aerosol agglomerates dominate the spectrum of emission species. The effects of these species are increasingly associated with cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and increase in all-cause mortality in the human population, particularly in urban and other highly trafficked areas. Also, the size of particles and agglomerates from exhaust has been related to particular diseases, risks of contracting types of pathologies and development of cardiovascular complications. Particles have therefore selectively been addressed in this literature review for adverse health effects. With particular focus has biodiesel blending been extensively reviewed for chemical species and associated adverse health effects. The reviewed data suggests that the legislatory environmental health authorities worldwide are not fully updated with all aspects of air pollution and that filtering technologies, fuel types and threshold values for particle content in the air are not up to date with the medical and patho-physiological knowledge.