Environmental Risks Of Magnetic Ionic Liquids: Ecotoxicity (EC50, Vibrio Fischeri) pp. 359-372
Authors: P. Luis, J. Albo, J. Crespo, C. Afonso, A. Irabien Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005, Santander, Spain)
Abstract: The interest in ionic liquids has increased widely in the last years in order to achieve better environmental management of processes and products. They are compounds composed entirely of ions and are fluid below 100ºC due to the asymmetry of at least one of the ions. Some interesting properties of these compounds, such as their negligible vapour pressure, high thermal stability and attractive properties as solvents make them be considered as new useful solvents in the chemical industry. Many challenges have to be faced since there are a wide lack of data on several properties and their possible impact to aquatic environment and human health; but in spite of the early stage of development of these compounds, some industrial applications have been already developed since the BASILTM process was performed by BASF in 2002. Another family of ionic liquids is recently in the spotlight due to their switchable properties in presence of a magnetic field. These magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are new ionic liquids with anions containing transition metal ions, such as Fe, Mn and Co. However, even though as other common ionic liquids MILs are not a threat for the atmosphere since their non-volatile character, their solubility in water could lead to environmental problems and it may be also a concern issue for real applications. It is essential to study the risks associated to their use in order to achieve sustainable production and consumption patterns. In this work, the ecotoxicity of some MILs in the bioluminescent bacteria (EC50, Vibrio fischeri) is measured and it is compared to that obtained for common ionic liquids. In addition, a QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) based on a group contribution method is applied to describe the influence of the molecular structure of common ILs and MILs on ecotoxicity.