The Application of Ecotoxicological Tools in the Assessment and Monitoring of Brazilian Waters: An Overview pp. 149-178
Authors: (R.B. Choueri, P.K. Gusso-Choueri, C.D.S. Pereira, A. Cesar, Departamento de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecília, UNISANTA, Santos, SP, Brazil)
Abstract: In this chapter it is discussed the use of the ecotoxicological tools for assessing, monitoring and controlling pollution of aquatic environments in Brazil. Emphasis is given on the utilization of the ecotoxicological approach as a support for public policies. The topics cover, initially, an historical overview about aquatic pollution in Brazil, and how the emergence of significant environmental problems triggered the development of aquatic ecotoxicology in the country. The evolution of the measurements of contaminant-related biological effects and how such techniques have been applied by environmental agencies in Brazil is subsequently discussed. The recent advances regarding the gradual incorporation of ecotoxicological tools in the environmental regulation sphere, considering water, effluent, and sediment quality assessments are presented. Lastly, a general panorama of research on aquatic ecotoxicology in Brazil is outlined and future directions on the use of ecotoxicological tools for regulatory purposes are discussed as well.