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01.Ecotoxicology of Free-Living Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans pp. 1-52
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Responses and Tolerance of Azolla-Anabaena System against Salinity Stress pp. 53-86 $100.00
Authors:  (Arun Kumar Mishra, Satya Shila Singh, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India)
Salinity is a worldwide threatening for the agricultural productivity as well as many favourable environmental conditions and human survival. Inflow of salt causes membrane disorganization which disturbs the ionic and osmotic homeostasis through the altered nutrition acquisition and also leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a consequence, various effective and adaptive mechanisms are activated through cell signaling system for the maximum Na+ exclusion, prevention of Na+ inclusions, synthesis and overexpression of antioxidative enzymes, proteins and organic compatible solutes. These physiological and biochemical modifications play an important role in the removal or detoxification of ROS as well as in the recovery of ions and water loss so as to tolerate against the ionic, osmotic and oxidative stress. Salt toxicity can be minimized by the new agricultural or farming practices including uses of salt tolerant plants which proved to be more ecofriendly, sustainable, cost effective with environmental benefits. Azolla- Anabaena symbiotic system, photoautotrophic, diazotrophic, potent biofertiliser, pays a remarkable contribution in the nitrogen economy and the fertility of the nitrogen deficient soil. Hence, use of salt tolerant Azolla strain(s) in saline soil can create an interesting new perspective to reduce salt toxicity caused by the salinity around the globe. Recently, considerable progresses have been made which are related to the salt stress tolerance of Azolla- Anabaena system. All recent and past reports related to the Azolla salt stress tolerance are summarized and reviewed in this article where differential sensitivity towards salinity with altered growth and development are manifested in the host as well as in the cyanobiont of Azolla. The morphological, physiological and biochemical basis of salt tolerance in Azolla is described and discussed through various facets viz. altered growth and morphology, membrane stability, ionic stress, osmotic stress and oxidative stress tolerance. The description of the different defense strategies against salt toxicity will be helpful in development of salt tolerant Azolla strain(s) through hybrid technology which will prove to be efficient biofertilizer for the reclamation of salt affected regions and sustained agricultural productivity. 

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Responses and Tolerance of Azolla-Anabaena System against Salinity Stress pp. 53-86