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Preparation and Characterization of Polyamides Composites with Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) And Poly(vinyl alcohol) pp.1181-1206 $100.00
Authors:  (Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh, Hasan A. Al-Salah, Tafila Technical Univesity, Department of Chemical Engineering, Jordan)
This chapter tackles all aspects of blending of two groups of polymers; a typical
polyamide with either a typical polyester or a typical polyvinyl. Polyamide-6 (PA6),
bacterial poly (β -hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are typical
polyamide, polyester and polyvinyl, respectively. PA6 is known to be high-strength
engineering thermoplastic. Although it is ductile at room temperature, it becomes brittle
under severe conditions such as high strain rates and/or low temperatures. This is due to
the low crack propagation resistance of polyamides. PHB is a biodegradable and
biocompatible thermoplastic polymer of high melting temperature (180 oC ) and
crystallinity. PHB has attracted much attention as an environmentally degradable resin to
be used for agricultural, marine and medical applications. One of the limitations of PHB
for these applications is its brittleness and narrow processing window. Blending of
friendly environmental biopolymers with synthetic polymers has proven to be a suitable
tool to produce novel materials with combined characteristics in having both improved
application properties and low cost advantages in material performance. PVA is a vinyl
polymer of simple structure with a wide range of applications. It is a water soluble
polymer. Commonly used PVA is atactic and usually obtained by radical polymerization
of vinyl acetate with subsequent hydrolysis of the side group. In this chapter, the
interaction parameters, crystallinity, miscibility and morphology of polymer blends (PB)
of PA6/PHB and PA6/PVA have been studied at different weight fractions and different
crystallization temperatures. The equilibrium melting points ( o
mB T ) values for individual
blends were determined by the method of Hoffman and Weeks. The interaction
parameters were calculated using the Nishi-Wang equation, which is based on the Flory-
Huggins theory. A corrected interaction parameter ( '
ij χ ), accounting for the effect of
molar fraction of the mixed polymers , has been presented by introducing an adjustable
parameter ( i
α ) that fits the value of volume fraction ( i Φ ). The corrected interaction
parameter values reflect the real image of the interaction between the different segments
in the mixed polymers better than the previous approach of Ellis. 

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Preparation and Characterization of Polyamides Composites with Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) And Poly(vinyl alcohol) pp.1181-1206