Fiber reinforced composite for non-metallic dental implants pp.871-892
Authors: (Ahmed Ballo, Timo Närhi, Pekka Vallittu, Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden, and others)
Abstract: Polymers and polymer composites possess a wide spectrum of properties that allow them to be used in diverse medical applications. Materials used for implant manufacture play an important role in implant fixation. Biocompatibility and biomechanical properties are important variables that need to be determined when new materials are considered for medical use. The mismatch in Young’s modulus between implant material and bone, and related over or under loading of bone, has been a major concern in prosthetic application in poor bone conditions.To overcome this problem, attempts to investigate non-metallic fiber reinforced composite (FRC) as a dental implant have been made. Such considerations lead to the hypothesis that FRC implants would obtain the properties comparable to those of the bone, in particular stiffness, which allows uniform load distribution to the surrounding bone tissue. This would reduce stress shielding, and micromotion at the bone-implant interface which can lead to bone loss or aseptic loosening of the prostheses. The proposed implant material is based on a bulk structure of continuous E-glass fiber reinforced polydimethacrylate-monomethacrylate (BisGMAPMMA) composite and bioactive glass. E-glass fibers provide mechanical strength whereas bioactive glass coating improves bonding of the implant to the bone, as well as increasing the mineral density of the bone around the implant. This chapter introduces new research on the mechanical and biological properties of fiber-reinforced composite and highlights its potential as a novel material for maxillofacial and oral implants.