Preparation of polymer composite nanofibers by electrospinning and their biomedical application pp.755-806
Authors: (K M Kamruzzaman Selim and Inn-Kyu Kang, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea)
Abstract: Electrospinning is one of the most promising fabrication methods designed to form ultra-fine fiber with diameters ranging from several micrometers to tens of nanometers. The electrospun fibers have two unique features that make it well suited to biomedical applications. Firstly, they can mimic the structure of extracellular matrices (ECM), which are composed of randomly oriented collagens. Secondly, the electrospun fibrous scaffold has a highly porous structure that is desirable, because it allows for cell seeding or migration. The electrospinning technique can be used in biomedical applications to construct wound dressings, drug-delivery platforms, and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this chapter, the basic concept of the electrospinning technique, especially its uses regarding the fabrication of polymer nanofibrous scaffolds, is described, focusing on the preparation of polymer nanocomposites by immobilization of biomolecules or biocompatible materials on the surface of the nanofibers through blending or chemical cross-linking methods. After interaction of as-prepared biomolecules-containing nanofibers with cells, the morphological and biological phenomena of polymer composites are comprehensively reviewed based on selective research studies. In addition, the use of prepared nanocomposites in regards to biomedical fields has been concisely demonstrated. The present review suggests that very straight and biocompatible nanocomposites can be prepared by immobilizing natural biopolymers, such as collagen, gelatin, keratin etc., or other biocompatible materials, such as hydroxyapatite, silver nanoparticles on biodegradable synthetic electrospun polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid)(PGA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(ε- caprolactone) (PCL), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), etc. The biomolecules-containing polymer nanocomposites exhibited higher cell adhesion, proliferation, and cell viability in comparison to non-conjugated nanofibers. The nanocomposites prepared by electrospinning have a potential for use in regards to tissue engineering, wound dressing, and other biomedical applications.