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Initiation and propagation controlled intralaminar cracking in cross-ply laminates pp.477-510 $100.00
Authors:  (J. Andersons, R. Joffe, Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Latvia, and others)
Abstract:
Cross-ply laminate subjected to tensile loading provides a relatively well understood
and widely used model system for studying progressive intralaminar cracking. The
transverse ply cracking is an inherently stochastic process due to the random variability
of local material properties of the plies. The variability affects both crack initiation and
propagation; the former is governed by the local strength whereas the latter is controlled
by the local fracture toughness. A simple statistical model is derived for the transverse
ply fragmentation in a cross-ply laminate subjected to tension. The crack spacing
distributions and crack density-applied load relations are obtained for two distinct
fragmentation stages: the initial stage and the advanced fragmentation stage. The initial
fragmentation phase is characterized by widely spaced, non-interacting cracks while later
on crack evolution is marked by low damage rate due to closely spaced, interacting
cracks. Based on the probabilistic cracking model, simple relations for crack density
mastercurves are derived for vanishing scatter of strength and toughness. The
mastercurve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates with
brittle and toughened epoxy matrices. The accuracy of estimation of laminate stiffness
reduction by using crack density mastercurves is evaluated. Natural fiber cross-ply
laminates with more disperse damage than in synthetic fiber composites are considered
and modeling options are briefly discussed. 


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Initiation and propagation controlled intralaminar cracking in cross-ply laminates pp.477-510