Abstract: This chapter examines protection and legal compliance related to equal opportunity and affirmative action in higher education by first summarizing civil rights laws applicable to faculty, staff, and students. It focuses on the particularly challenging issue of sexual harassment, an illustrative example of the critical role supervisory responsibility plays in implementing all equal opportunity laws. It also reviews the steps institutions need to take to reduce potential liability and provides recommendations to assist academic administrators in doing this. Second, this chapter looks at compliance with affirmative action in employment as well as with Supreme Court decisions that have shaped guidance for college admissions. Finally, this chapter examines equal opportunity and affirmative action requirements within the context of the hiring process. It presents a checklist of best practices for hiring, as institutions seek enhanced workforce diversity.