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01.Carrageenan (Chondrus Crispus): A Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration pp. 395-403
02.Black Seed (Nigella Sativa): A Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration pp. 385-394
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Carrageenan (Chondrus Crispus): A Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration pp. 395-403 $45.00
Authors:  (Catherine Ulbricht, J. Kathryn Bryan, Dilys Burke, Julie Conquer, Dawn Costa, Nicole Giese, Richard Isaac, Idalia Rychlik, Erica Rusie, Minney Varghese, Wendy Weissner and Jen Woods)
Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence on carrageenan including history, folkloric precedent, expert opinion, pharmacology, dosing, interactions, adverse effects, and toxicology. This review serves as a clinical support tool. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in ten databases, 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications. All literature collected pertained to efficacy in humans, dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanisms of action. Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria are utilized for selection. Grades were assigned using an evidence-based grading rationale. Results: The review found that there was limited high-quality human evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of carrageenan. The available human and non-human studies show possible effectiveness in anorectal lesions, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant atherosclerosis, bladder disorders, bronchitis, cancer cough, demulcent, diabetes, diarrhea, food uses, gastrointestinal disorders, herpes simplex virus, high blood pressure, human papillomavirus immunomodulator, kidney disorders, laxative, obesity, rickets, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), tuberculosis, ulcers. Conclusion: There is insufficient available evidence regarding the efficacy of carrageenan; the quality of the studies is low and the magnitude of the effect of carrageenan tends to be small. Regarding safety, carrageenan may be harmful in those with cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and immunologic conditions. Larger, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded clinical trials with nonbiased sponsors are warranted in order to confirm the safety and efficacy of carrageenan as an integrative therapy. 


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Carrageenan (Chondrus Crispus): A Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration pp. 395-403