Immunomodulators as Therapeutic Strategies for Managing Multiple Sclerosis pp. 249-266
Authors: (E.W. Brenu, L. Tajouri, D.R. Staines, S. Marshall-Gradisnik, Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, Australia, and others)
Abstract: Immunomodulation and immunosuppression are important strategies for monitoring autoimmune disorders. As imbalances in immune function affect other physiological processes, immunomodulators may have an important role in restoring and maintaining regular neuroimmue activities. In recent years these agents have demonstrated important benefits in controlling the mechanisms associated with deteriorating central nervous system pathologies such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), where central and peripheral nervous system immune regulation is impaired. MS is characterized by severe compromises to neuroimmune processes involving changes in immune cell function, soluble proteins and modulation of inflammatory processes. The introduction of therapeutic agents in the form of immunomodulators; interferon, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and Glatiramer acetate have proven to be useful to some extent in reducing the severity of MS. Herein the implications and effects of these molecules on the immune system in MS are reviewed. Additionally, the available evidence on the mode of action of neuropeptides in MS, their effectiveness on clinical measures, and current knowledge are also reviewed.