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01.Flooding and Infectious Disease in Rural Children: Can Intervention Mitigate Predicted Increases in Disease Burden? (pp. 393-404)
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Climate and Child Health in Rural Areas of Low and Middle Income Countries: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence (pp. 431-445) $45.00
Authors:  Angela Baschieri and Sari Kovats
Abstract:
Children are amongst the most vulnerable to climate change
because they currently experience a high health burden
from climate-sensitive diseases. Rural populations in low
and middle income countries are also vulnerable to climate
change impacts because of a high dependency on local
environmental resources. We investigated the evidence base
for the direct impacts of current climate factors on child
health using a systematic review of studies quantifying an
association between temperature and/or rainfall and child
health outcomes. We found 35 papers that met our criteria,
which were classified as spatial or temporal analyses. There
is good evidence that climate factors (temperature and
rainfall) affect the spatial and temporal distribution of
malaria. There is also good evidence that temperature and
rainfall are an important determinant of diarrhoeal disease
morbidity, reflecting both acute mechanisms (e.g. short
term water contamination) and long term effects (chronic
water scarcity). The review highlighted that little is known
about the specific mechanisms that link climate patterns
with disease or mortality. Few analyses were of high
quality, which would include adjustment for spatial or
temporal confounders. Many studies did not distinguish
between seasonal and other climate effects making
interpretation difficult. There is a need for more research to
describe the mechanisms by which climate variability
affects child health. To identify those communities most at
risk from future climate change we need both to improve
the understanding of the epidemiology of disease and
identify interventions to lower the impact of the changing
climate [250]. 


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Climate and Child Health in Rural Areas of Low and Middle Income Countries: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence (pp. 431-445)