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Some Factors Affecting the Transformation Hysteresis in Shape Memory Alloys, pp. 361-369 $100.00
Authors:  Yong Liu
Transformation hysteresis is an important property of shape memory alloys (SMAs)
which requires careful consideration during the materials selection for targeted technical
applications. When being used for repeated active actuation purposes (for example in
MEMS, morphing wing of aerial vehicles, robotics, etc.) a small hysteresis is required
since it strongly influences the operational frequency achievable and the power
consumption needed for actuation. On the other hand, some applications may require very
large transformation hysteresis in order to maintain a stable austenite phase within a large
temperature range for retaining the predefined shape (for example in deployable space
structures, pipe joining, etc). In order to obtain SMAs with either very low or very high
hysteresis, a fundamental understanding on its influencing factors is ultimately important.
This short communication highlights several recent results on the factors affecting the
transformation hysteresis in shape memory alloys. This aricle is not aimed to provide a
complete spectrum on the transformation hysteresis of shape memory alloys. It is hoped to
encourage further investigation to understand the fundamental factors controlling the
transformation hysteresis, thus enabling an effective alloy design.
It is well known that the thermoelastic phase transformation is associated with a local
balance between chemical and non-chemical forces [1,2]. Chemical force arises from the
difference in Gibbs free energies between austenite and martensite and acts as a driving
force promoting the phase with lower energy at each temperature. Non-chemical force
arises from two major contributions; one is the elastic energy to accommodate the shape
and volume change during transformation and the other is the energy dissipated during
phase transformation. The elastic energy stored during forward transformation is released
upon reverse transformation acting as driving force, thus does not contribute to the
transformation hysteresis. It can be demonstrated that the elastic energy is responsible for
the transformation interval. The energy dissipation due to defect formation is irreversible
and contributes to the transformation hysteresis. Thus, factors contributing to the frictional
forces against structural phase transformation will contribute to the transformation
hysteresis. In the following, several observations/investigations on the factors affecting the
transformation hysteresis are briefly discussed namely, atomic radius of the alloying
elements, lattice mismatch between martensite and austenite, substrate-induced stress in
bimorph, and effect of precipitation. 

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Some Factors Affecting the Transformation Hysteresis in Shape Memory Alloys, pp. 361-369