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Fabrication and Surface Modification of Porous Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy for Bone Grafts, pp. 69-111 $100.00
Authors:  Shuilin Wu, Xiangmei Liu, Paul K. Chu, Tao Hu, Kelvin W. K. Yeung, and Jonathan C. Y. Chung
Equiatomic porous nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi SMAs) are becoming
one of the most promising biomaterials for bone grafts because of their unique advantages
over currently used biomaterials. For example, they have good mechanical properties and
lower Young‘s modulus relative to dense NiTi, Ti, and Ti-based alloys. Porous NiTi
SMAs are relatively easy to machine compared to porous ceramics such as hydroxyapatite
and calcium phosphate that tend to exhibit brittle failure. The porous structure with
interconnecting open pores can also allow tissue in-growth and favors bone
osseointegration. In addition, porous NiTi alloys possess good shape memory effect
(SME) and superelasticity (SE) similar to dense NiTi alloys. In order to optimize porous
NiTi SMAs used in bone grafts, current research focuses on the fabrication methods and
surface modification techniques to obtain adjustable bone-like structures with good
mechanical properties and excellent superelasticity as well as a bioactive passivation layer
on the entire exposed surface to block nickel leaching and enhance the surface biological
activity. This chapter describes the recent progress in the fabrication process and surface
modification methods of porous NiTi SMAs and discusses subsequent effects of these
processes and techniques on the materials properties from the perspective of bone grafts

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Fabrication and Surface Modification of Porous Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy for Bone Grafts, pp. 69-111